A report on Self-Strengthening Movement

Foochow arsenal
Foochow arsenal
Feng Guifen, coiner of the phrase
Commissioner Lin Zexu
Photo of a 27-year-old Prince Gong.
Front gate of the Zongli Yamen, the de facto foreign affairs ministry.
Nanjing Jinling Arsenal (金陵造局), built by Li Hongzhang in 1865.
The Fuzhou Arsenal in Mawei District, Fuzhou, Fujian.
Chinese warship Yangwu, built at the Fuzhou Arsenal in 1872.
Builder of the Fuzhou Arsenal, Prosper Giquel
"Chinese Gordon"
Chinese Qing officers with a Montigny mitrailleuse.
Premier Li Hongzhang with former President Ulysses S. Grant, 1879
Chinese fortifications, Sino-Vietnamese border
Gun transportation at Shanghai Jiangnan Arsenal (上海江南製造兵工廠).
Zuo Zongtang, 1875
Minister of Transport Sheng Xuanhuai

The Self-Strengthening Movement, also known as the Westernisation or Western Affairs Movement (c.

- Self-Strengthening Movement
Foochow arsenal

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Qing dynasty

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Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Qing Empire in 1636
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
Yixin, Prince Gong
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Yuan Shikai
Qing China in 1911
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
A Qing dynasty mandarin
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Qing China in 1832
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Patriarchal family
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875

The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought vigorous reforms and the introduction of foreign military technology in the Self-Strengthening Movement.

Li Hongzhang in 1896

Li Hongzhang

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Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.

Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.

Li Hongzhang in 1896
Li Hongzhang with Lord Salisbury and Lord Curzon
Photographic portrait of Li Hongzhang by Baoji Studio, Shanghai. Date unknown.
Woodcut of Li Hongzhang with Otto von Bismarck in Friedrichsruh in 1896.
A painting of Li Hongzhang
Li Hongzhang in U. S. Government engraved portrait
Hongzhang by Guth in Vanity Fair, 13 August 1896
Hongzhang's arrival at Vancouver in 1896, in the British library
Li photographed with former American president Ulysses S. Grant, 1879, by Liang Shitai

He was given the concurrent appointments as Viceroy of Zhili Province and Beiyang Trade Minister (北洋通商大臣) to oversee various issues in Zhili, Shandong and Fengtian provinces, including trade, tariffs, diplomacy, coastal defence, and modernisation.

First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements

First Sino-Japanese War

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Conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea.

Conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea.

First Sino-Japanese War, major battles and troop movements
Caricature about the dispute between China, Japan and Russia over Korea, published in the first edition of Tôbaé, 1887
Woodblock print depicting the flight of the Japanese legation in 1882
Kim Ok-gyun photographed in Nagasaki in 1882. His assassination in China would contribute to tensions leading to the First Sino-Japanese War.
Itō Sukeyuki, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet
The French-built Matsushima, flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Sino-Japanese conflict
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Empress Dowager Cixi built the Chinese navy in 1888.
, the flagship of the Beiyang Fleet
Depiction of the sinking of the Kow-shing and the rescue of some of its crew by the French gunboat Le Lion, from the French periodical Le Petit Journal (1894)
Korean soldiers and Chinese captives
Japanese soldiers of the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan, 1895
The Battle of the Yalu River
An illustration by Utagawa Kokunimasa of Japanese soldiers beheading 38 Chinese POWs as a warning to others
Revisionist depiction of Chinese delegation, led by Admiral Ding Ruchang and their foreign advisors, boarding the Japanese vessel to negotiate the surrender with Admiral Itō Sukeyuki after the Battle of Weihaiwei. In reality, Ding had committed suicide after his defeat, and never surrendered.
Japan–China peace treaty, 17 April 1895
Satirical drawing in the magazine Punch (29 September 1894), showing the victory of "small" Japan over "large" China
Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895
Western Powers tried to divide their interests and influence in China in the aftermath of the First Sino-Japanese War.

The war demonstrated the failure of the Qing dynasty's attempts to modernize its military and fend off threats to its sovereignty, especially when compared with Japan's successful Meiji Restoration.

Oil painting by Hubert Vos (1905)

Empress Dowager Cixi

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Chinese noblewoman, concubine and later regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years, from 1861 until her death in 1908.

Chinese noblewoman, concubine and later regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years, from 1861 until her death in 1908.

Oil painting by Hubert Vos (1905)
An early portrait of the Consort Dowager Kangci, foster mother of the Xianfeng Emperor. She hosted the selection of the Xianfeng Emperor's consorts in 1851, in which Cixi participated as a potential candidate.
The Pavilion of Beautiful Scenery, where Cixi gave birth to the Tongzhi Emperor
Portrait of Empress Dowager Ci'an (co-regent with Cixi), with whom Cixi staged the Xinyou Coup.
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Photograph of Princess Rongshou (center seated), Prince Gong's daughter. As a way to show gratitude to the prince, Cixi adopted his daughter and elevated her to a first rank princess (the highest rank for imperial princesses).
Ceremonial headdress likely worn by Cixi. The small phoenixes emerging from the surface represent the empress. The Walters Art Museum
Portrait of Empress Xiaozheyi, also known as the Jiashun Empress and "Lady Arute", who had the approval of Empress Dowager Ci'an but never Cixi's. It is widely speculated that the Empress was pregnant with the Tongzhi Emperor's child and that Cixi orchestrated the empress's demise.
Portrait of the Tongzhi Emperor doing his coursework. Cixi's high expectations of him may have contributed to his strong distaste for learning.
Empress Dowager Cixi (front middle) poses with her court attendants and the Guangxu Emperor's empress (second from left), who was also her niece
Empress Dowager Cixi holds hands with the fourth daughter of Prince Qing (to her left) and chief palace eunuch Li Lianying (to her right). The lady standing in the background is Consort Jin (later Dowager Consort Duankang).
Consort Zhen, the Guangxu Emperor's most beloved consort, was initially liked, but eventually hated by Cixi.
Empress Dowager Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor holding court, drawing by Katharine Carl
Empress Dowager Cixi and women of the American legation. Holding her hand is Sarah Conger, the wife of U.S. Ambassador Edwin H. Conger.
Empress Dowager Cixi, by Katharine Carl, 1904, commissioned by the Empress Dowager Cixi for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (St. Louis World's Fair) and later given to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, transferred to the Smithsonian Museum of American Art collections and later the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution.
Entrance to the burial chamber in Cixi's tomb
Memorial tower of the tomb of Empress Dowager Cixi
Photograph of Cixi
Katharine Carl oil portrait painted for exhibit at St. Louis World's Fair of 1904
The plaque hanging above Cixi is inscribed with her title in full
The Empress Dowager was a devoted Buddhist and seized every opportunity to dress up as Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin), the goddess of mercy. This photograph shows her sitting on a barge on Zhonghai. The white smoke forms the character for longevity, and on top of the smoke was her Buddhist name "Guangrenzi" (literally Universal Benevolence).

Although Cixi refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement.

An 1884 painting of the Battle of Anqing (1861)

Taiping Rebellion

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Massive rebellion and civil war that was waged in China between the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Han, Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

Massive rebellion and civil war that was waged in China between the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Han, Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

An 1884 painting of the Battle of Anqing (1861)
A map of the Taiping Rebellion in 1854
A drawing of Hong Xiuquan, dating from about 1860.
A map of the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
The Royal seal of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Qing troops retaking Suzhou city
A historic monument to the Taiping Rebellion in Mengshan town, in Wuzhou, Guangxi, which was an early seat of Government of the Taiping
A battle of the Panthay Rebellion, from the set Victory over the Muslims, set of twelve paintings in ink and color on silk
A miniature of the Palace of Heavenly Kingdom in Nanjing
The Heavenly King's throne in Nanjing
The retaking of Nanjing by Qing troops
A scene of the Taiping Rebellion
A map of the Taiping Rebellion, 1866

The 14-year civil war combined with other internal and external wars weakened the dynasty but provided incentive for an initially successful period of reform and self-strengthening.

Photograph of Zuo Zongtang, late 19th century

Zuo Zongtang

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Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.

Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.

Photograph of Zuo Zongtang, late 19th century
Former Residence of Zuo Zongtang in Xiangyin County, Hunan.
The map showing Zuo's campaign against Dungan rebels and Yaqub Beg in Xinjiang
Portrait of Zuo Zongtang, by Piassetsky, 1875
Tomb of Zuo Zongtang in Yuhua District, Changsha, Hunan.

In 1866, as part of the Qing government's Self-Strengthening Movement, Zuo oversaw the construction of the Fuzhou Arsenal and naval academy.

Ensign of Beiyang Fleet

Beiyang Fleet

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One of the four modernized Chinese navies in the late Qing dynasty.

One of the four modernized Chinese navies in the late Qing dynasty.

Ensign of Beiyang Fleet
Flag of the Admiral of the Beiyang Fleet
The Beiyang fleet at anchor in Weihaiwei
Flag of Provincial Commander-in-Chief of Beiyang Fleet
Flag of Fleet Commander of the Beiyang Fleet
Dingyuan (定遠)
Zhenyuan (鎮遠)
Jingyuan (靖遠)
Jingyuan (經遠)
Lai Yuan (來遠)
Chaoyong (超勇)

Among the four, the Beiyang Fleet was particularly sponsored by Li Hongzhang, one of the most trusted vassals of Empress Dowager Cixi and the principal patron of the "self-strengthening movement" in northern China in his capacity as the Viceroy of Zhili and the Minister of Beiyang Commerce (北洋通商大臣).

Foochow Arsenal

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The Foochow Arsenal, also known as the Fuzhou or Mawei Arsenal, was one of several shipyards created by the Qing Empire and a flagship project of French assistance to China during the Self-Strengthening Movement.

Hundred Days' Reform

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Failed 103-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement that occurred from 11 June to 22 September 1898 during the late Qing dynasty.

Failed 103-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement that occurred from 11 June to 22 September 1898 during the late Qing dynasty.

China embarked on an effort to modernize, the Self-Strengthening Movement, following its defeat in the First (1839–1842) and Second (1856–1860) Opium Wars.

Prince Gong

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Imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.

Imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China.

Photo of a 39- or 40-year-old Prince Gong, taken by John Thompson in 1872 at the prince's residence.
Empress Xiaojingcheng and Prince Gong
Gulun Princess Rongshou (centre, seated)
Prince Gong Mansion

As the longstanding leader of the Zongli Yamen, which he established in 1861, Prince Gong was responsible for spearheading various reforms in the early stages of the Self-Strengthening Movement, a series of measures and policy changes implemented by the Qing government with the aim of modernising China.