Self-Strengthening Movement

institutional reformattempts to modernize its militaryself-strengtheningthe modernisation efforts of Chinafirst modernization effortsin Chinamodernisationrecover its sovereigntySelf Strengthening MovementWesternization Movement
The Self-Strengthening Movement, also known as the Westernization or Western Affairs Movement or Tongzhi Reforms, c.wikipedia
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Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
The Self-Strengthening Movement, also known as the Westernization or Western Affairs Movement or Tongzhi Reforms, c. 1861 – 1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following the military disasters of the Opium Wars against the British Empire and the vast internal devastation of the Taiping and other concurrent rebellions.
The initial gains in the Self-Strengthening Movement were lost in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, in which the Qing lost its influence over Korea and the possession of Taiwan.

Feng Guifen

The concern with the "self-strengthening" of China was expressed by Feng Guifen (1809–1874) in a series of essays presented by him to Zeng Guofan in 1861.
Feng Guifen (1809 – May 28, 1874, courtesy name Linyi, art name Jingting, later art name Dengweishanren, jinshi degree 1840) was a scholar during the Qing Dynasty and was a strong contributor to the philosophy of the Self-Strengthening Movement undertaken in the late 19th century.

Tongwen Guan

TongwenguanTong Wen GuanTungwen Guan
The Tongwen Guan was established in 1862 by the joint advocacy of Prince Gong and Wenxiang, offering classes in English, French, Russian and German, in order to train diplomats to engage with Westerners.
The School of Combined Learning, or the Tongwen Guan was a government school for teaching Western languages (and later scientific subjects), founded at Beijing, China in 1862 during the late-Qing dynasty, right after the conclusion of the Second Opium War, as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.

Zuo Zongtang

General TsoTso Tsung-t'angTso Chung-tong
This program was spearheaded by regional leaders like Zeng Guofan who, with the efforts of the western-educated Yung Wing, established the Shanghai arsenal, Li Hongzhang who built the Nanjing and Tianjin Arsenals, and Zuo Zongtang who constructed the Fuzhou Dockyard.
In 1866, as part of the Qing government's Self-Strengthening Movement, Zuo oversaw the construction of the Fuzhou Arsenal and naval academy.

Foochow Arsenal

Foochow Navy YardMawei Navy YardFuzhou Arsenal
This program was spearheaded by regional leaders like Zeng Guofan who, with the efforts of the western-educated Yung Wing, established the Shanghai arsenal, Li Hongzhang who built the Nanjing and Tianjin Arsenals, and Zuo Zongtang who constructed the Fuzhou Dockyard.
The Foochow Arsenal, also known as the Fuzhou or Mawei Arsenal, was one of several shipyards in Qing China as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement.

Li Hongzhang

Li Hung-changLi Hung ChangLee Hung-cheung
Li Hongzhang uses the term in an 1864 letter whereby he identifies the Western strength as lying in technology and advocates learning to construct such machines, first military and subsequently – in a memorial the following year – civilian.
He was given the concurrent appointments as Viceroy of Zhili Province and Beiyang Trade Minister to oversee various issues in Zhili, Shandong and Fengtian provinces, including trade, tariffs, diplomacy, coastal defence, and modernisation.

China Merchants Group

China Merchants Steam Navigation CompanyChina Merchants' Steam Navigation CompanyChina Merchants
Examples of such government-supervised merchant undertakings include the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company in 1872, the Kaiping Mines in 1877, the Shanghai Cotton Mill in 1882, and the Imperial Telegraph Administration in 1881.
China Merchants Steam Navigation Company was a transportation company founded on December16, 1872, by then Minister of Beiyang Li Hongzhang as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement during the late Qing dynasty.

First Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarSino-Japanese War (1894-1895)Sino–Japanese War
Especially after the first Sino-Japanese War, many military leaders saw its importance.
The war demonstrated the failure of the Qing dynasty's attempts to modernize its military and fend off threats to its sovereignty, especially when compared with Japan's successful Meiji Restoration.

Beiyang Fleet

Beiyang Navya new imperial navyChinese
This plan underpinned the formation of the Beiyang Fleet, the largest fleet in Asia at that time. When it was first developed by Empress Dowager Cixi, the Beiyang Fleet was said to be the strongest navy in East Asia.
Among the four, the Beiyang Fleet was particularly sponsored by Li Hongzhang, one of the most trusted vassals of Empress Dowager Cixi and the principal patron of the "self-strengthening movement" in northern China in his capacity as the Viceroy of Zhili and the Minister of Beiyang Commerce .

Second Opium War

Second Anglo-Chinese WarArrow WarSecond China War
The majority of the ruling elite still subscribed to a conservative Confucian worldview, but following China's serious defeats in the First and Second Opium Wars, several officials now argued that in order to strengthen itself against the West, it was necessary to adopt Western military technology and armaments.
After the war, a major modernization movement, known as the Self-Strengthening Movement, began in China in the 1860s and several institutional reforms were initiated.

Empress Dowager Cixi

CixiEmpress DowagerTzu Hsi
When it was first developed by Empress Dowager Cixi, the Beiyang Fleet was said to be the strongest navy in East Asia.
Although Cixi refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement.

Prosper Giquel

Giquel
The arsenals were established with the help of foreign advisors and administrators, such as Léonce Verny who helped build the Ningbo Arsenal in 1862–64, or the French officer Prosper Giquel who directed the construction of the Fuzhou Arsenal in 1867–74.
These efforts contributed to China's Self-Strengthening Movement of acquiring Western knowledge.

Guizhou Ironworks

Examples of such enterprises included Guizhou Ironworks established in 1891 and the Hubei Textile Company established in 1894.
Guizhou Ironworks were established in 1891 as part of the third phase of the Self Strengthening Movement in the Qing dynasty.

Sheng Xuanhuai

Shen DunheSheng Hsuan-huai
Kenneth Walker criticised the emphasis placed on cultural conservatism as a factor in delaying the industrialisation of China, pointing out that Sheng Xuanhuai and his fellow early industrialists were capable, accomplished businessmen who generated much profit from their operations.
Taking active part in the Self-Strengthening Movement, He actively advocated using Western technology in saving the country from destitution.

Jiangnan Shipyard

Kiangnan ArsenalKiangnan Dock and Engineering WorksJiangnan Arsenal
The origins of the Jiangnan Shipyard lie in the Self-Strengthening Movement of the late 19th century in China, during the Qing Dynasty.

Imperial Chinese Telegraph Administration

Imperial Telegraph AdministrationITA
Examples of such government-supervised merchant undertakings include the China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company in 1872, the Kaiping Mines in 1877, the Shanghai Cotton Mill in 1882, and the Imperial Telegraph Administration in 1881.

Prince Gong

YixinPrince KungYixin (Prince Gong)
To make peace with the Western powers in China, Prince Gong was made regent, Grand Councilor, and head of the newly formed Zongli Yamen (a de facto foreign affairs ministry).
As the longstanding leader of the Zongli Yamen, which he established in 1861, Prince Gong was responsible for spearheading various reforms in the early stages of the Self-Strengthening Movement, a series of measures and policy changes implemented by the Qing government with the aim of modernising China.

Hundred Days' Reform

Hundred Days ReformWuxu Coupa coup
Albert Feuerwerker argues that this shift ultimately was connected to the reform proposals of the 1890s, i.e. the Hundred Days Reform, and thence the New Policies.
The reformers declared that China needed more than "self-strengthening" and that innovation must be accompanied by institutional and ideological change.

Shen Baozhen

Shen Pao-chen
Following the suppression of the rebellion in 1864, Shen became actively involved in the Self-strengthening movement and later worked on the shipyard in Fuzhou (Foochow).

New Policies

fiscal and administrative reformsfiscal and institutional reformslate Qing reforms
Albert Feuerwerker argues that this shift ultimately was connected to the reform proposals of the 1890s, i.e. the Hundred Days Reform, and thence the New Policies.

Hanyang Arsenal

Hanyang
Jane E. Elliott criticized the allegation that China refused to modernize or was unable to defeat Western armies as simplistic, noting that China embarked on a massive military modernization in the late 1800s after several defeats, buying weapons from Western countries and manufacturing their own at arsenals, such as the Hanyang Arsenal during the Boxer Rebellion.

Wenxiang

Wenxiang's death in 1876 further weakened the position of Prince Gong.
He was one of the architects behind the Self-strengthening movement and was instrumental in devising the Qing government's cooperative policy towards the Western powers in the period 1861-76.

Opium Wars

carrying opiumcontrabanddisastrous wars
The Self-Strengthening Movement, also known as the Westernization or Western Affairs Movement or Tongzhi Reforms, c. 1861 – 1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following the military disasters of the Opium Wars against the British Empire and the vast internal devastation of the Taiping and other concurrent rebellions.