An 1884 painting of the Battle of Anqing (1861)
Foochow arsenal
A map of the Taiping Rebellion in 1854
Foochow arsenal
A drawing of Hong Xiuquan, dating from about 1860.
Feng Guifen, coiner of the phrase
A map of the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Commissioner Lin Zexu
The Royal seal of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Photo of a 27-year-old Prince Gong.
Qing troops retaking Suzhou city
Front gate of the Zongli Yamen, the de facto foreign affairs ministry.
A historic monument to the Taiping Rebellion in Mengshan town, in Wuzhou, Guangxi, which was an early seat of Government of the Taiping
Nanjing Jinling Arsenal (金陵造局), built by Li Hongzhang in 1865.
A battle of the Panthay Rebellion, from the set Victory over the Muslims, set of twelve paintings in ink and color on silk
The Fuzhou Arsenal in Mawei District, Fuzhou, Fujian.
A miniature of the Palace of Heavenly Kingdom in Nanjing
Chinese warship Yangwu, built at the Fuzhou Arsenal in 1872.
The Heavenly King's throne in Nanjing
Builder of the Fuzhou Arsenal, Prosper Giquel
The retaking of Nanjing by Qing troops
"Chinese Gordon"
A scene of the Taiping Rebellion
Chinese Qing officers with a Montigny mitrailleuse.
A map of the Taiping Rebellion, 1866
Premier Li Hongzhang with former President Ulysses S. Grant, 1879
Chinese fortifications, Sino-Vietnamese border
Gun transportation at Shanghai Jiangnan Arsenal (上海江南製造兵工廠).
Zuo Zongtang, 1875
Minister of Transport Sheng Xuanhuai

The British and French burning of the Old Summer Palace in 1860 as Taiping rebel armies marched north, forced the imperial court to acknowledge the crisis.

- Self-Strengthening Movement

The 14-year civil war combined with other internal and external wars weakened the dynasty but provided incentive for an initially successful period of reform and self-strengthening.

- Taiping Rebellion
An 1884 painting of the Battle of Anqing (1861)

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Qing dynasty

2 links

Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Qing Empire in 1636
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
Yixin, Prince Gong
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Yuan Shikai
Qing China in 1911
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
A Qing dynasty mandarin
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Qing China in 1832
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Patriarchal family
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875

The Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864) and the Dungan Revolt (1862–1877) in Central Asia led to the death of over 20 million people, from famine, disease, and war.

The Tongzhi Restoration of the 1860s brought vigorous reforms and the introduction of foreign military technology in the Self-Strengthening Movement.

Photograph of Zuo Zongtang, late 19th century

Zuo Zongtang

1 links

Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.

Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.

Photograph of Zuo Zongtang, late 19th century
Former Residence of Zuo Zongtang in Xiangyin County, Hunan.
The map showing Zuo's campaign against Dungan rebels and Yaqub Beg in Xinjiang
Portrait of Zuo Zongtang, by Piassetsky, 1875
Tomb of Zuo Zongtang in Yuhua District, Changsha, Hunan.

In 1851, he started his career in the Qing military by participating in the campaign against the Taiping Rebellion.

In 1866, as part of the Qing government's Self-Strengthening Movement, Zuo oversaw the construction of the Fuzhou Arsenal and naval academy.

Li Hongzhang in 1896

Li Hongzhang

1 links

Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.

Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.

Li Hongzhang in 1896
Li Hongzhang with Lord Salisbury and Lord Curzon
Photographic portrait of Li Hongzhang by Baoji Studio, Shanghai. Date unknown.
Woodcut of Li Hongzhang with Otto von Bismarck in Friedrichsruh in 1896.
A painting of Li Hongzhang
Li Hongzhang in U. S. Government engraved portrait
Hongzhang by Guth in Vanity Fair, 13 August 1896
Hongzhang's arrival at Vancouver in 1896, in the British library
Li photographed with former American president Ulysses S. Grant, 1879, by Liang Shitai

His image in China remains controversial, with criticism on one hand for political and military defeats and praise on the other for his success against the Taiping Rebellion, his diplomatic skills defending Chinese interests in the era of unequal treaties, and his role pioneering China's industrial and military modernisation.

He was given the concurrent appointments as Viceroy of Zhili Province and Beiyang Trade Minister (北洋通商大臣) to oversee various issues in Zhili, Shandong and Fengtian provinces, including trade, tariffs, diplomacy, coastal defence, and modernisation.