Self-administration

self-administeredintracranial self-stimulationself-administerself-administering
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to themself.wikipedia
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Addiction

drug addictiondrug addictdrug addicts
The higher the frequency with which a test animal emits the operant behavior, the more rewarding (and addictive), the test substance is considered.
ΔFosB expression in these neurons directly and positively regulates drug self-administration and reward sensitization through positive reinforcement, while decreasing sensitivity to aversion.

Operant conditioning

operantconditioningavoidance learning
In animal experimentation, self-administration is a form of operant conditioning where the reward is a drug.
In drug dependent individuals, negative reinforcement occurs when a drug is self-administered in order to alleviate or "escape" the symptoms of physical dependence (e.g., tremors and sweating) and/or psychological dependence (e.g., anhedonia, restlessness, irritability, and anxiety) that arise during the state of drug withdrawal.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Self-administration of putatively addictive drugs is considered one of the most valid experimental models to investigate drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior.
In rat models, the separate use of CRF inhibitors and CRF receptor antagonists both decreased self-administration of the drug of study.

Relapse

recurrencerelapsingrecurrent
Self-administration of heroin and cocaine is used to screen drugs for possible effects in reducing drug-taking behavior, especially reinstatement of drug seeking after extinction.
The availability of the dopamine receptor D2 plays a role in self-administration and the reinforcing effects of cocaine and other stimulants.

Reinforcement

positive reinforcementnegative reinforcementreinforcing
In animal experimentation, self-administration is a form of operant conditioning where the reward is a drug.
In drug dependent individuals, negative reinforcement occurs when a drug is self-administered in order to alleviate or "escape" the symptoms of physical dependence (e.g., tremors and sweating) and/or psychological dependence (e.g., anhedonia, restlessness, irritability, and anxiety) that arise during the state of drug withdrawal.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to themself.

Pharmacology

pharmacologistpharmacologicalpharmacologically
Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to themself.

Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.

Animal testing

animal researchanimal experimentationlaboratory animal
In animal experimentation, self-administration is a form of operant conditioning where the reward is a drug.

Extinction (psychology)

extinctionextinction learningdisappearance
Self-administration of heroin and cocaine is used to screen drugs for possible effects in reducing drug-taking behavior, especially reinstatement of drug seeking after extinction.

George Koob

In a prominent model of self-administration developed by George Koob, rats are allowed to self-administer cocaine for either 1 hour each day (short access) or 6 hours each day (long access).

Rhesus macaque

rhesus monkeyrhesus monkeysMacaca mulatta
Thompson and Schuster (1964) studied the relative reinforcement properties of morphine in restrained rhesus monkeys using intravenous self-administration.

Addiction vulnerability

Additionally, many in the science community agree that addiction is not simply just a result of desensitized neural receptors but also a corollary of long-term associated memories (or cues) of substance use and self-administration.

Brain stimulation reward

intracranial self-stimulationdrug rewardbrain stimulation
These data correlate well with findings from self-administration studies on the addictive properties of drugs.

Ketamine

K-holeSpecial KCalypsol
Ketamine's potential for dependence has been established in various operant conditioning paradigms, including conditioned place preference and self-administration; further, rats demonstrate locomotor sensitization following repeated exposure to ketamine.

Conditioned place preference

aversionconditioned place ''aversionconditioned place aversion
Reinstatement is a method used in animal testing procedures including CPP and self-administration.

5-Chloro-αMT

5-Chloro-AMT
5-Chloro-αMT was found to not reliably produce intracranial self-administration in rats or substitute for cocaine in rats or monkeys.

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
Individuals who frequently self-administer high doses of amphetamine have a high risk of developing an amphetamine addiction, since chronic use at high doses gradually increase the level of accumbal ΔFosB, a "molecular switch" and "master control protein" for addiction.

Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

Michigan Alcohol Screening TestMichigan Alcohol Screening Test,Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)
There are other versions of the MAST screening tool, all of which can be self-administered or via interview with someone who is trained in the tool being used.

FOSB

ΔFosBDelta FosBDeltaFosB
ΔFosB expression in D1-type nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons directly and positively regulates drug self-administration and reward sensitization through positive reinforcement while decreasing sensitivity to aversion.

PNU-99,194

U99194
In rodent studies, low doses of PNU-99,194 produce conditioned place preference (CPP) with no effect on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), whereas low doses of D 3 agonists like 7-OH-DPAT inhibit ICSS behavior and cause conditioned place aversion (CPA).

Methoxyflurane

PenthranePenthrox inhaler
Supervised self-administration of methoxyflurane in children and adults can briefly lead to deep sedation, and it has been used as a patient controlled analgesic for painful procedures in children in hospital emergency departments.

German Statutory Accident Insurance

their 1884 lawWorker's compensation Germany
The accident insurance funds govern themselves (self-administration) with equal representation divided between employers, entrepreneurs and employees.

Para-Methoxyamphetamine

PMApara''-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine
Accordingly, it is not self-administered by rodents unlike amphetamine and MDMA, and anecdotal reports by humans suggest it is not particularly euphoric at all, perhaps even dysphoric in contrast.