Self-harm

self-mutilationself-injuryself harmself-harmingcuttingself mutilationcuts herselfcutting herselfself harmingself-injurious behavior
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without the intent to commit suicide.wikipedia
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Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without the intent to commit suicide. Self-harm in such individuals may not be associated with suicidal or para-suicidal behaviour.
Attempted suicide or non-fatal suicidal behavior is self-injury with at least some desire to end one's life that does not result in death.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
People with other mental disorders may also self-harm, including those with depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and dissociative disorders.
A person with PTSD is at a higher risk for suicide and intentional self-harm.

Self-inflicted wound

self-inflictedself-mutilationinflicted injuries upon themselves
Self-inflicted wounds is a specific term associated with soldiers to describe non-lethal injuries inflicted in order to obtain early dismissal from combat.
A self-inflicted wound (SIW), is the act of harming oneself where there are no underlying psychological problems related to the self-injury, but where the injurer wanted to take advantage of being injured.

Suicide attempt

attempted suicidesuicide attemptsparasuicide
Self-harm in such individuals may not be associated with suicidal or para-suicidal behaviour.
Suicide attempts include parasuicide such as self-harm where there is no actual intention of killing oneself.

Burn

burnsthird-degree burnsthird-degree burn
However, the number of self-harm methods are only limited by an individual's inventiveness and their determination to harm themselves; this includes burning, self-poisoning, alcohol abuse, self-embedding of objects, hair pulling, bruising/hitting one's self, scratching to hurt one's self, knowingly abusing over the counter or prescription drugs, and forms of self-harm related to anorexia and bulimia.
Burns can also occur as a result of self-harm or violence between people.

Self-embedding

embed
However, the number of self-harm methods are only limited by an individual's inventiveness and their determination to harm themselves; this includes burning, self-poisoning, alcohol abuse, self-embedding of objects, hair pulling, bruising/hitting one's self, scratching to hurt one's self, knowingly abusing over the counter or prescription drugs, and forms of self-harm related to anorexia and bulimia.
Self-embedding is typically considered deliberate self-harm, also known as nonsuicidal self-injury, which is defined as "deliberate, direct destruction of tissues without suicidal intent."

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
The key areas of disorder which exhibit an increased risk include autism spectrum disorders, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, phobias, and conduct disorders.
There is often self-harm and other dangerous behavior.

Psychological abuse

emotional abusepsychologicalemotional
Self-harm is often associated with a history of trauma, including emotional and sexual abuse.
The U.S. Department of Justice defines emotionally abusive traits as including causing fear by: intimidation, threatening physical harm to self, partner, children, or partner's family or friends, destruction of pets and property, forcing isolation from family, friends, or school or work.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
The key areas of disorder which exhibit an increased risk include autism spectrum disorders, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, phobias, and conduct disorders.
The risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6 percent over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30–40 percent.

Bulimia nervosa

bulimiabulimicbulimics
However, the number of self-harm methods are only limited by an individual's inventiveness and their determination to harm themselves; this includes burning, self-poisoning, alcohol abuse, self-embedding of objects, hair pulling, bruising/hitting one's self, scratching to hurt one's self, knowingly abusing over the counter or prescription drugs, and forms of self-harm related to anorexia and bulimia.
There is also a higher risk of suicide and self-harm.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
People with other mental disorders may also self-harm, including those with depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and dissociative disorders.
The first systematic description of global disability arising in youth, in 2011, found that among 10- to 24-year-olds nearly half of all disability (current and as estimated to continue) was due to mental and neurological conditions, including substance use disorders and conditions involving self-harm.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
People with other mental disorders may also self-harm, including those with depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and dissociative disorders. The key areas of disorder which exhibit an increased risk include autism spectrum disorders, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, phobias, and conduct disorders.
The assessment also includes a mental state examination, which is an assessment of the person's current mood and thought content, in particular the presence of themes of hopelessness or pessimism, self-harm or suicide, and an absence of positive thoughts or plans.

Sexual abuse

sexually abusedsexualsex abuse
Self-harm is often associated with a history of trauma, including emotional and sexual abuse.
Effects of child sexual abuse include shame, self-blame, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, borderline personality disorder, and propensity to re-victimization in adulthood.

Anorexia nervosa

anorexiaanorexicanorexics
However, the number of self-harm methods are only limited by an individual's inventiveness and their determination to harm themselves; this includes burning, self-poisoning, alcohol abuse, self-embedding of objects, hair pulling, bruising/hitting one's self, scratching to hurt one's self, knowingly abusing over the counter or prescription drugs, and forms of self-harm related to anorexia and bulimia.

Lesch–Nyhan syndrome

Lesch-Nyhan syndromeKelley-Seegmiller SyndromeHPRT
The most distinctive characteristic of the rare genetic condition, Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, is self-harm and may include biting and head-banging.
Beginning in the second year of life, a particularly striking feature of LNS is self-mutilating behaviors, characterized by lip and finger biting.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
The desire to self-harm is a common symptom of some personality disorders.
The extremes are worse still: at one extreme lie self-harm and self-neglect, while at another extreme some individuals may commit violence and crime.

Dialectical behavior therapy

dialectical behavioral therapyDBTdialectical behaviour therapy
Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) can be successful for those individuals exhibiting a personality disorder, and could potentially be used for those with other mental disorders who exhibit self-harming behaviour.
There is evidence that DBT can be useful in treating mood disorders, suicidal ideation, and for change in behavioral patterns such as self-harm, and substance abuse.

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
Self-harm is often associated with a history of trauma, including emotional and sexual abuse.
Such difficulties may be evidenced by mood swings, brief yet intense depressive episodes, or self-mutilation.

Trichotillomania

Hair pullingHair Pulling Disordercompulsion of eating one's own hair
While older definitions included behaviour such as interfering with wound healing, excessive skin picking (dermatillomania), hair pulling (trichotillomania) and the ingestion of toxic substances or objects as self-harm, in current terminology those are differentiated from the term self-harm.

Flupentixol

FlupenthixolFluanxol
There is tentative evidence for the medication flupentixol; however, greater study is required before it can be recommended.
There is tentative evidence that it reduces the rate of deliberate self-harm, among those who self-harm repeatedly.

Factitious disorder imposed on self

Munchausen syndromeMünchausen syndromeMunchausen's syndrome
There are parallels between self-harm and Münchausen syndrome, a psychiatric disorder in which individuals feign illness or trauma.
In 1951, Richard Asher was the first to describe a pattern of self-harm, wherein individuals fabricated histories, signs, and symptoms of illness.

Self-injury Awareness Day

For example, March 1 is designated as Self-injury Awareness Day (SIAD) around the world.
Self-injury Awareness Day (SIAD) (also known as Self-Harm Awareness Day) is a grassroots annual global awareness event / campaign on March 1, where on this day, and in the weeks leading up to it and after, some people choose to be more open about their own self-harm, and awareness organizations make special efforts to raise awareness about self-harm and self-injury.

Self-destructive behavior

self-destructiveself-destructionself-destructive behaviour
More obvious forms of self-destruction are eating disorders, alcohol abuse, drug addictions, sex addiction, self-injury, and suicide attempts.

Self-hatred

self-loathingself-deprecatingself-mockery
These functions include self-harm being used as a coping mechanism which provides temporary relief of intense feelings such as anxiety, depression, stress, emotional numbness and a sense of failure or self-loathing.
The term is infrequently used to mean a more personal self-loathing or hatred of oneself, or low self-esteem which may lead to self-harm.

Lady Constance Bulwer-Lytton

Constance LyttonLady Constance LyttonLady Lytton
Constance Lytton, a prominent suffragette, used a stint in Holloway Prison during March 1909 to mutilate her body.
Lytton wrote of the self-mutilation action in Prisons and Prisoners (Chapter VIII-"A Track to the Water's Edge"):