Self-medication

self-medicateself-medicatingself-medicatesself medicateself-medicatedself-medicational usemedicinemedicine one takesself medicatingself medication
Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.wikipedia
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Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug usedrugs
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms.
In popular practice, recreational drug use generally is a tolerated social behaviour, rather than perceived as the serious medical condition of self-medication.

Comfort food

comfort foodshome-style cookinghome-style food
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms.
The provocation of specific hormonal responses leading selectively to increases in abdominal fat is seen as a form of self-medication.

David F. Duncan

David DuncanDuncan, David F.
The self-medication hypothesis (SMH) originated in papers by Edward Khantzian, Mack and Schatzberg, David F. Duncan, and a response to Khantzian by Duncan.
In 1974, he and Edward Khantzian of Harvard Medical School, in separate publications, proposed what has come to be known as the self-medication hypothesis of addiction.

Nicotine marketing

tobacco advertisingcigarette advertisingtobacco sponsorship
Claims that nicotine has medicinal value have been used to market cigarettes as self-administered medicines.
Nicotine addiction seems to worsen mental health problems, but industry marketing has claimed that nicotine is both less harmful and therapeutic for people with mental illness, and is a form of "self-medication".

Social anxiety disorder

social phobiasocial anxietysociophobia
People with social anxiety disorder commonly use these drugs to overcome their highly set inhibitions. Of those who seek help from mental health services for conditions including anxiety disorders such as panic disorder or social phobia, approximately half have alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence issues.
It is common for sufferers of social phobia to self-medicate in this fashion, especially if they are undiagnosed, untreated, or both; this can lead to alcoholism, eating disorders or other kinds of substance abuse.

Edward Khantzian

The self-medication hypothesis (SMH) originated in papers by Edward Khantzian, Mack and Schatzberg, David F. Duncan, and a response to Khantzian by Duncan.
He is the originator of the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse, which states that individuals use drugs in an attempt to self-medicate states of distress and suffering.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms.
Self-medication

Social anxiety

social phobiaanxietysocial anxieties
Additionally, stimulants are useful to individuals with social anxiety by helping individuals break through their inhibitions.
It is common for sufferers of social phobia to self-medicate in this fashion, especially if they are undiagnosed, untreated, or both; this can lead to alcoholism, eating disorders or other kinds of substance abuse.

Panic disorder

panicpanic disorderssomatic/panic
Of those who seek help from mental health services for conditions including anxiety disorders such as panic disorder or social phobia, approximately half have alcohol or benzodiazepine dependence issues.
These findings are consistent with the suggestion made by Cox, Norton, Dorward, and Fergusson (1989) that panic disorder patients self-medicate if they believe that certain substances will be successful in alleviating their symptoms.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
While this may provide immediate relief of some symptoms such as anxiety, it may evoke and/or exacerbate some symptoms of several kinds of mental illnesses that are already latently present, and may lead to addiction/dependence, among other side effects of long-term use of the drug.
Self medication

Zoopharmacognosy

self-medicationself-medicateanimals self-treat
Zoopharmacognosy
Zoopharmacognosy is a behaviour in which non-human animals apparently self-medicate by selecting and ingesting or topically applying plants, soils, insects, and psychoactive drugs to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of pathogens and toxins.

Biodiversity and drugs

biodiversity to medicinethe development of new pharmaceuticals
Biodiversity and drugs
Many animals are also known to self-medicate using plants and other materials available to them.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialantibacterials
Self-medication with antibiotics is commonplace in some countries, such as Greece.
Self-prescribing of antibiotics is an example of misuse.

Anxiolytic

anti-anxietyanxiolysisanxiolytics
Alcohol and sedative/hypnotic drugs, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, are central nervous system (CNS) depressants that lower inhibitions via anxiolysis.
Ethanol is used as an anxiolytic, sometimes by self-medication.

Dual diagnosis

co-occurring disordersco-occurs with addictionco-occurring mental and substance use disorders
Dual diagnosis
The self-medication theory suggests that people with severe mental illnesses misuse substances in order to relieve a specific set of symptoms and counter the negative side-effects of antipsychotic medication.

Human behavior

human behaviourhuman activitybehavior
Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.

Over-the-counter drug

over-the-counterover the counterOTC
The most widely self-medicated substances are over-the-counter drugs used to treat common health issues at home, as well as dietary supplements.

Physician

doctormedical doctorphysicians
These do not require a doctor's prescription to obtain and, in some countries, are available in supermarkets and convenience stores.

Medical prescription

prescriptionprescriptionsprescribed
These do not require a doctor's prescription to obtain and, in some countries, are available in supermarkets and convenience stores.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms. Alcohol and sedative/hypnotic drugs, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, are central nervous system (CNS) depressants that lower inhibitions via anxiolysis.

Mental distress

psychological distressdistressmentally distressed
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressstresses
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms. While this may provide immediate relief of some symptoms such as anxiety, it may evoke and/or exacerbate some symptoms of several kinds of mental illnesses that are already latently present, and may lead to addiction/dependence, among other side effects of long-term use of the drug.

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
The psychology of self-medicating with psychoactive drugs is typically within the specific context of using recreational drugs, alcohol, comfort food, and other forms of behavior to alleviate symptoms of mental distress, stress and anxiety, including mental illnesses and/or psychological trauma, is particularly unique and can serve as a serious detriment to physical and mental health if motivated by addictive mechanisms.