Self-replicating machine

Clanking replicatorself-replicatingself-replicating machinesself-replicating robotsVon Neumann machinevon Neumann machinesself-reproducing machinesVon Neumannsautomated factoriesincluding additional nanomachines
A self-replicating machine is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.wikipedia
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Von Neumann universal constructor

universal constructorself-replicating machinesconstruction
Von Neumann also worked on what he called the universal constructor, a self-replicating machine that would operate in a cellular automata environment.
John von Neumann's universal constructor is a self-replicating machine in a cellular automata (CA) environment.

Self-replication

self-replicatingreplicationreplicate
A self-replicating machine is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.
It is a long-term goal of some engineering sciences to achieve a clanking replicator, a material device that can self-replicate.

Molecular assembler

molecular manufacturinguniversal assemblerUniversal Constructor
For example, the term clanking replicator was once used by Drexler to distinguish macroscale replicating systems from the microscopic nanorobots or "assemblers" that nanotechnology may make possible, but the term is informal and is rarely used by others in popular or technical discussions.
These include hypothetical machines that manipulate individual atoms and machines with organism-like self-replicating abilities, mobility, ability to consume food, and so forth.

Space-based solar power

solar power satellitesolar power satellitesSpace Solar Power
The future development of such technology is an integral part of several plans involving the mining of moons and asteroid belts for ore and other materials, the creation of lunar factories, and even the construction of solar power satellites in space.
This 1980s SPS concept relied less on human presence in space and more on partially self-replicating systems on the lunar surface under remote control of workers stationed on Earth.

Robert Freitas

Robert A. Freitas Jr.Robert A. Freitas Jr
The concept of self-replicating machines has been advanced and examined by Homer Jacobson, Edward F. Moore, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann and in more recent times by K. Eric Drexler in his book on nanotechnology, Engines of Creation (coining the term clanking replicator for such machines) and by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in their review Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines which provided the first comprehensive analysis of the entire replicator design space.
In 2004, Freitas and Ralph Merkle coauthored and published Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, a comprehensive survey of the field of physical and hypothetical self-replicating machines.

Edward F. Moore

E. F. MooreMooreEd Moore
The concept of self-replicating machines has been advanced and examined by Homer Jacobson, Edward F. Moore, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann and in more recent times by K. Eric Drexler in his book on nanotechnology, Engines of Creation (coining the term clanking replicator for such machines) and by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in their review Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines which provided the first comprehensive analysis of the entire replicator design space.

Berserker (novel series)

BerserkerBerserker seriesBerserkers
The idea of an automated spacecraft capable of constructing copies of itself was first proposed in scientific literature in 1974 by Michael A. Arbib, but the concept had appeared earlier in science fiction such as the 1967 novel Berserker by Fred Saberhagen or the 1950 novellette trilogy The Voyage of the Space Beagle by A. E. van Vogt.
The Berserker series is a series of space opera science fiction short stories and novels by Fred Saberhagen, in which robotic self-replicating machines strive to destroy all life.

RepRap project

RepRapRAMPS RepRap 2.0 (Mendel)
The same is true for RepRaps, which are another class of machines sometimes mentioned in reference to such non-autonomous "self-replication".

Gray goo

grey gooGrey goo scenarionanovirus plague
Gray goo (also spelled grey goo) is a hypothetical global catastrophic scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating machines consume all biomass on Earth while building more of themselves, a scenario that has been called ecophagy ("eating the environment", more literally "eating the habitation").

Self-replicating machines in fiction

A self-replicating machine is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.

Astrochicken

When Dyson revised and reprinted his lecture in 1979 he added proposals for a modified version of Moore's seagoing artificial living plants that was designed to distill and store fresh water for human use and the "Astrochicken."

Nanorobotics

nanobotnanobotsnanites
For example, the term clanking replicator was once used by Drexler to distinguish macroscale replicating systems from the microscopic nanorobots or "assemblers" that nanotechnology may make possible, but the term is informal and is rarely used by others in popular or technical discussions.
These nanorobot swarms, both those unable to replicate (as in utility fog) and those able to replicate unconstrainedly in the natural environment (as in grey goo and synthetic biology), are found in many science fiction stories, such as the Borg nanoprobes in Star Trek and The Outer Limits episode "The New Breed".

Self-replicating spacecraft

Von Neumann probeself-replicating machinesVon Neumann machines
The possibly misnamed von Neumann probe is one theoretical example of such a machine.
The concept is named after Hungarian American mathematician and physicist John von Neumann, who rigorously studied the concept of self-replicating machines that he called "Universal Assemblers" and which are often referred to as "von Neumann machines".

Ecophagy

global ecophagy
In this situation (called the grey goo scenario) out-of-control self-replicating nanorobots consume entire ecosystems, resulting in global ecophagy.

Lights out (manufacturing)

automated factoriesautomated factoryautomated industrial complex

Autonomous robot

autonomousautonomouslyautonomous systems
A self-replicating machine is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.

Nature

naturalnatural worldmaterial world
A self-replicating machine is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.

Homer Jacobson

The concept of self-replicating machines has been advanced and examined by Homer Jacobson, Edward F. Moore, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann and in more recent times by K. Eric Drexler in his book on nanotechnology, Engines of Creation (coining the term clanking replicator for such machines) and by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in their review Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines which provided the first comprehensive analysis of the entire replicator design space.

Freeman Dyson

Freeman J. DysonDysonFreeman John Dyson
The concept of self-replicating machines has been advanced and examined by Homer Jacobson, Edward F. Moore, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann and in more recent times by K. Eric Drexler in his book on nanotechnology, Engines of Creation (coining the term clanking replicator for such machines) and by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in their review Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines which provided the first comprehensive analysis of the entire replicator design space.

John von Neumann

von NeumannJ. von NeumannNeumann, John von
The concept of self-replicating machines has been advanced and examined by Homer Jacobson, Edward F. Moore, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann and in more recent times by K. Eric Drexler in his book on nanotechnology, Engines of Creation (coining the term clanking replicator for such machines) and by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in their review Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines which provided the first comprehensive analysis of the entire replicator design space.

K. Eric Drexler

Eric DrexlerDrexler Eric Drexler’s
The concept of self-replicating machines has been advanced and examined by Homer Jacobson, Edward F. Moore, Freeman Dyson, John von Neumann and in more recent times by K. Eric Drexler in his book on nanotechnology, Engines of Creation (coining the term clanking replicator for such machines) and by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in their review Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines which provided the first comprehensive analysis of the entire replicator design space.