Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaningsemanticistlinguistic semanticsmeaningssemanticalinterpretationmeaning of the stringsnatural language semantics
Semantics (from sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.wikipedia
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Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
Semantics (from sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. In linguistics, it is the study of the interpretation of signs or symbols used in agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts. In linguistics, semantics is the subfield that is devoted to the study of meaning, as inherent at the levels of words, phrases, sentences, and larger units of discourse (termed texts, or narratives).
It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context.

Etymology

etymologicaletymologicallyetymologies
The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others.
For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts, and texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods, how they developed in meaning and form, or when and how they entered the language.

Michel Bréal

BréalMichel Breal
The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal, a French philologist.
He is often identified as a founder of modern semantics.

Semiotics

semioticsemioticiansemiology
Semantics (from sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
To coin a word to refer to a thing (see lexical words), the community must agree on a simple meaning (a denotative meaning) within their language, but that word can transmit that meaning only within the language's grammatical structures and codes (see syntax and semantics).

Agent (grammar)

agentagentiveagents
In linguistics, it is the study of the interpretation of signs or symbols used in agents or communities within particular circumstances and contexts.
The agent is a semantic concept distinct from the subject of a sentence as well as from the topic.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
Semantics (from sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
The signified is the signification (semantic) side, the mental construction or image associated with the sound, by either a speaker and hearer.

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others.
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the transmission of meaning depends not only on structural and linguistic knowledge (grammar, lexicon, etc.) of the speaker and listener but also on the context of the utterance, any pre-existing knowledge about those involved, the inferred intent of the speaker, and other factors.

Lexicology

lexicologistlexicallexicographer
The formal study of semantics intersects with many other fields of inquiry, including lexicology, syntax, pragmatics, etymology and others.
Lexicology also involves relations between words, which may involve semantics (for example, love vs. affection), derivation (for example, fathom vs. unfathomably), use and sociolinguistic distinctions (for example, flesh vs. meat), and any other issues involved in analyzing the whole lexicon of a language.

Connotation

connotationsconnotesconnotative
It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation.
In logic and semantics, connotation is roughly synonymous with intension.

Truth condition

truth conditionstruth conditional meaning
Traditionally, semantics has included the study of sense and denotative reference, truth conditions, argument structure, thematic roles, discourse analysis, and the linkage of all of these to syntax.
In semantics and pragmatics, a truth condition is the condition under which a sentence is true.

Meronymy

meronympart-ofconstituent
The basic study of semantics is oriented to the examination of the meaning of signs, and the study of relations between different linguistic units and compounds: homonymy, synonymy, antonymy, hypernymy, hyponymy, meronymy, metonymy, holonymy, paronyms.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Semantics (from sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
The meaning that is connected to individual signs, morphemes, words, phrases, and texts is called semantics.

Reference

referencesreferentialreferent
Traditionally, semantics has included the study of sense and denotative reference, truth conditions, argument structure, thematic roles, discourse analysis, and the linkage of all of these to syntax. In the philosophy of language, semantics and reference are closely connected.
In semantics, reference is generally construed as the relationships between nouns or pronouns and objects that are named by them.

Montague grammar

MontagueMontague semanticsMontague’s universal grammar
Montague grammar is an approach to natural language semantics, named after American logician Richard Montague.

Parsing

parserparseparsed
In these terms, the syntactic parse of the sentence John ate every bagel would consist of a subject (John) and a predicate (ate every bagel); Montague demonstrated that the meaning of the sentence altogether could be decomposed into the meanings of its parts and in relatively few rules of combination.
Within computational linguistics the term is used to refer to the formal analysis by a computer of a sentence or other string of words into its constituents, resulting in a parse tree showing their syntactic relation to each other, which may also contain semantic and other information.

Generative lexicon

Generative Lexicon (GL) is a theory of linguistic semantics which focuses

Word

wordsverballexical
It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for in reality, their denotation.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.

Philosophy of language

languagephilosopher of languagetheory of reference
In the philosophy of language, semantics and reference are closely connected.
Semantic trees, on the other hand, focus upon the role of the meaning of the words and how those meanings combine to provide insight onto the genesis of semantic facts.

Lambda calculus

beta reductionλ-calculusuntyped lambda calculus
In the late 1960s, Richard Montague proposed a system for defining semantic entries in the lexicon in terms of the lambda calculus.
The lambda calculus provides a simple semantics for computation, enabling properties of computation to be studied formally.

Semasiology

semasiological
In International scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology.
It is often used as a synonym of semantics (the study of the meaning of words, phrases, and longer forms of expression).

Prototype theory

prototypesprototypeprototype semantics
Another set of concepts related to fuzziness in semantics is based on prototypes.
Prototype theory has also been applied in linguistics, as part of the mapping from phonological structure to semantics.

Discourse

discursivelanguagediscours
In linguistics, semantics is the subfield that is devoted to the study of meaning, as inherent at the levels of words, phrases, sentences, and larger units of discourse (termed texts, or narratives).

Richard Montague

MontagueMontague, RichardMontagovian
In the late 1960s, Richard Montague proposed a system for defining semantic entries in the lexicon in terms of the lambda calculus.
He pioneered a logical approach to natural language semantics which became known as Montague grammar.

Cognitive linguistics

cognitivecognitive linguistcognitive linguists
Cognitive semantics approaches meaning from the perspective of cognitive linguistics.
Since cognitive linguistics sees language as embedded in the overall cognitive capacities of human beings, topics of special interest for cognitive linguistics include: the structural characteristics of natural language categorization (such as prototypicality, systematic polysemy, cognitive models, mental imagery, and conceptual metaphor); the functional principles of linguistic organization (such as iconicity and naturalness); the conceptual interface between syntax and semantics (as explored by cognitive grammar and construction grammar); the experiential and pragmatic background of language-in-use; and the relationship between language and thought, including questions about linguistic relativity and conceptual universals.

Ontology engineering

ontological engineeringontologybuilding ontologies
In ontology engineering, the term semantics refers to the meaning of concepts, properties, and relationships that formally represent real-world entities, events, and scenes in a logical underpinning, such as a description logic, and typically implemented in the Web Ontology Language (OWL).
Automated processing of information not interpretable by software agents can be improved by adding rich semantics to the corresponding resources, such as video files.