Semiconductor device fabrication

fabricatedsemiconductor fabricationsemiconductor manufacturingfabricationFabfabrication processprocessfabricatesemiconductor manufacturing processyield
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to manufacture semiconductor devices, typically the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices used in the integrated circuit (IC) chips that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.wikipedia
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Integrated circuit

integrated circuitsmicrochipchip
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to manufacture semiconductor devices, typically the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices used in the integrated circuit (IC) chips that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.
Integrated circuits were made practical by technological advancements in metal–oxide–silicon (MOS) semiconductor device fabrication.

Planar process

planar technologyplanarmicrofabricated
It is a multiple-step sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps (such as surface passivation, thermal oxidation, planar diffusion and junction isolation) during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material.
The planar process is a manufacturing process used in the semiconductor industry to build individual components of a transistor, and in turn, connect those transistors together.

10 nanometer

10 nm10nm10-nanometer
In more advanced semiconductor devices, such as modern 14/10/7 nm nodes, fabrication can take up to 15 weeks (about 4 months) with 11–13 weeks (3 to 4 months) being the industry average.
In semiconductor fabrication, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) defines the 10 nanometer (10 nm) node as the MOSFET technology node following the 14 nm node.

14 nanometer

14 nm16 nm12 nm
In more advanced semiconductor devices, such as modern 14/10/7 nm nodes, fabrication can take up to 15 weeks (about 4 months) with 11–13 weeks (3 to 4 months) being the industry average.
The 14 nanometer (14nm) MOSFET technology node is the successor to the 22nm/(20nm) node.

7 nanometer

7 nm7nm7
In more advanced semiconductor devices, such as modern 14/10/7 nm nodes, fabrication can take up to 15 weeks (about 4 months) with 11–13 weeks (3 to 4 months) being the industry average.
In semiconductor manufacturing, the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors defines the 7 nanometer (7 nm) node as the MOSFET technology node following the 10 nm node.

Photolithography

photolithographiclithographyoptical lithography
It is a multiple-step sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps (such as surface passivation, thermal oxidation, planar diffusion and junction isolation) during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material.
Photolithography is the standard method of printed circuit board (PCB) and microprocessor fabrication.

Thermal oxidation

controlled oxidationthermal oxide thermally grown oxide
It is a multiple-step sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps (such as surface passivation, thermal oxidation, planar diffusion and junction isolation) during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material.
The thermal oxidation process was developed in the late 1950s by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla, who initially used it for the surface passivation of silicon semiconductors, before he later used the process to fabricate the first MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors) with Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs.

MOSFET

metal-oxide-semiconductorMOSMOS integrated circuit
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to manufacture semiconductor devices, typically the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices used in the integrated circuit (IC) chips that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. The first MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor) semiconductor devices were fabricated by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs between 1959 and 1960.
The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor (IGFET) that is fabricated by the controlled oxidation of a semiconductor, typically silicon.

5 nanometer

5 nm3.5 nmaverage half-pitch of a memory cell expected to be manufactured circa 2019-2020
The 5 nanometer process began being produced by Samsung in 2018.
In semiconductor manufacturing, the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems defines the 5 nanometer (5 nm) node as the MOSFET technology node following the 7 nm node.

3 nanometer

3 nm11 nm
In 2019, Samsung and TSMC announced plans to produce 3 nanometer nodes.
In semiconductor manufacturing, 3 nanometer, usually abbreviated 3 nm, is the next die shrink after the 5 nanometer MOSFET technology node.

CMOS

RF CMOScomplementary metal–oxide–semiconductorcomplementary MOS
An improved type of MOSFET technology, CMOS, was developed by Chih-Tang Sah and Frank Wanlass at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1963.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor) fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
Silicon is almost always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications.
This in turn led to Atalla in 1960 proposing the concept of the MOS integrated circuit, a silicon chip built from MOSFETs, which later became the standard semiconductor device fabrication process for integrated circuits.

Dawon Kahng

The first MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor) semiconductor devices were fabricated by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs between 1959 and 1960.
Atalla and Kahng developed both the PMOS and NMOS processes for MOSFET semiconductor device fabrication.

Mohamed M. Atalla

Mohamed AtallaMartin Mohamed AtallaMohamed Mohamed Atalla
The first MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor) semiconductor devices were fabricated by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs between 1959 and 1960.
He made a series of breakthroughs in semiconductor technology during 1956–1962, starting with his development of the surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technologies such as the planar process and monolithic integrated circuit chips), followed by his invention of the MOSFET (with Dawon Kahng) in 1959, then the PMOS and NMOS fabrication processes, his proposal of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, and the demonstration of nanolayer transistors and practical Schottky diodes.

Fabless manufacturing

fablessfabless semiconductor companyfabless semiconductor companies
Qualcomm and Broadcom are among the biggest fabless semiconductor companies, outsourcing their production to companies like TSMC.
Fabless manufacturing is the design and sale of hardware devices and semiconductor chips and outsourcing their fabrication (or "fab") to a specialized manufacturer called a semiconductor foundry.

Ion implantation

ion implantersimplantedion implanter
Ion implantation is used in semiconductor device fabrication and in metal finishing, as well as in materials science research.

Field-effect transistor

FETfield effect transistorfield-effect transistors
The first MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor) semiconductor devices were fabricated by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs between 1959 and 1960. Technology nodes, also known as "process technologies" or simply "nodes", are typically indicated by the size in nanometers (or historically micrometers) of the process's gate length.
He investigated the surface properties of silicon semiconductors at Bell Labs, where he adopted a new method of semiconductor device fabrication, coating a silicon wafer with an insulating layer of silicon oxide, so that electricity could reliably penetrate to the conducting silicon below, overcoming the surface states that prevented electricity from reaching the semiconducting layer.

10 µm process

20µm process10 µm10,000 nm
RCA used CMOS for its 4000-series integrated circuits in 1968, starting with a 20µm process before gradually scaling to a 10 µm process over the next several years.
The 10 μm process is the level of MOSFET semiconductor process technology that was commercially reached around 1971, by leading semiconductor companies such as RCA and Intel.

Frank Wanlass

An improved type of MOSFET technology, CMOS, was developed by Chih-Tang Sah and Frank Wanlass at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1963.
CMOS has since become the standard semiconductor device fabrication process for MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors).

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
It is a multiple-step sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps (such as surface passivation, thermal oxidation, planar diffusion and junction isolation) during which electronic circuits are gradually created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material.
During manufacture, dopants can be diffused into the semiconductor body by contact with gaseous compounds of the desired element, or ion implantation can be used to accurately position the doped regions.

Atomic layer deposition

ALDAtomic layer deposition (ALD)atomic layer deposition (ALD
ALD is a key process in the fabrication of semiconductor devices, and part of the set of tools

FOUP

Front-Opening Unified Pod
Production in advanced fabrication facilities is completely automated, and carried out in a hermetically sealed, nitrogen environment to improve yield (number of working microchips vs the number of microchips made in a wafer) with FOUPs and automated material handling systems taking care of the transport of wafers from machine to machine.
FOUPs and IC manufacturing equipment can have a nitrogen atmosphere, in an effort to increase device yield.

Atomic layer etching

Atomic layer etching is an emerging technique in semiconductor manufacture, in which a sequence alternating between self-limiting chemical modification steps which affect only the top atomic layers of the wafer, and etching steps which remove only the chemically-modified areas, allows the removal of individual atomic layers.

Wafer testing

Wafer proberproberwafer test
The fab tests the chips on the wafer with an electronic tester that presses tiny probes against the chip.
Wafer testing is a step performed during semiconductor device fabrication.

Furnace anneal

Furnace annealing is a process used in semiconductor device fabrication which consist of heating multiple semiconductor wafers in order to affect their electrical properties.