Senate of Canada

SenatorSenateCanadian SenatorCanadian SenateSenatorsSenate chamberCanadian senatorsSeats in the SenateSenate reformSenators of Canada
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the monarch (represented by the governor general).wikipedia
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House of Commons of Canada

House of CommonsMPMember of Parliament
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the monarch (represented by the governor general).
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is the lower chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Canada, along with the sovereign (represented by the governor general) and the Senate of Canada.

Upper house

upper chamberupperEuropean Upper Houses
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the monarch (represented by the governor general).
For example, members of the Senate of Canada are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Prime Minister of Canada

Prime MinisterCanadian Prime MinisterPrime Ministers
The Senate is modelled after the British House of Lords and consists of 105 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister.
The Cabinet and the prime minister also appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and other federal courts, and the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, and selects the governor general of Canada.

Constitution Act, 1867

British North America Act of 1867British North America Act, 1867British North America Act
The Senate came into existence in 1867, when the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Act 1867 (BNA Act), uniting the Province of Canada (which was separated into Quebec and Ontario) with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation, a dominion called Canada.
The Act created a federal dominion and defines much of the operation of the Government of Canada, including its federal structure, the House of Commons, the Senate, the justice system, and the taxation system.

Cabinet of Canada

CabinetCanadian Cabinetfederal cabinet
The prime minister and Cabinet are responsible solely to the House of Commons and remain in office only so long as they retain the confidence of that chamber.
For instance, there is typically a minister from each province in Canada, ministers from visible minority groups, female ministers and, while the majority of those chosen to serve as ministers of the Crown are Members of Parliament, a Cabinet sometimes includes a senator, especially as a representative of a province or region where the governing party won few or no ridings.

Senate of Canada Building

Government Conference CentreUnion StationOttawa Union Station
With the Centre Block undergoing renovations, temporary chambers have been constructed in the Senate of Canada Building, where the Senate began meeting in 2019.
The Senate of Canada Building (édifice du Sénat du Canada), formerly the Government Conference Centre, is a building located at 2 Rideau Street in downtown Ottawa, Ontario, Canada that serves as the temporary seat of the Senate of Canada.

Governor General of Canada

Governor GeneralGovernor-General of CanadaGovernor-General
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the monarch (represented by the governor general).
From there, the party is led by the 's parliamentary messenger—the Usher of the Black Rod—to the Senate chamber, wherein all justices of the Supreme Court, senators, members of parliament, and other guests are assembled.

Monarchy of Canada

Queen of CanadaCanadian monarchCanadian Royal Family
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the monarch (represented by the governor general).
As such, the constitution instructs that any change to the position of the monarch or his or her representatives in Canada requires the consent of the Senate, the House of Commons, and the legislative assemblies of all the provinces.

Bundesrat of Germany

BundesratBundesrat votesFederal Council
Others suggested that senators should be members of provincial legislatures, similar to the Bundesrat of Germany.
For its similar function, it is sometimes described as an upper house of parliament along the lines of the United States Senate, the Canadian Senate or the British House of Lords.

Progressive Conservative Party of Canada

Progressive ConservativeProgressive Conservative partyProgressive Conservatives
In June 2006, Progressive Conservative Senator Lowell Murray and Liberal Senator Jack Austin introduced an amendment to the constitution to alter the makeup of the Senate by enlarging the chamber to 117 members and giving a greater number to the western provinces of British Columbia (12), Alberta (10), Saskatchewan (7), and Manitoba (7).
One member of the Senate of Canada, Elaine McCoy, sat as an "Independent Progressive Conservative" until 2016.

Triple-E Senate

elected SenateSenate reformcalls to reform the Senate
Many Western Canadians then called for a "Triple-E Senate", standing for elected, equal, and effective.
The Triple-E Senate (a mnemonic contrived acronym for equal, elected, and effective) is a proposed variation of reform to the current Canadian Senate, calling for senators to be elected to exercise effective powers in numbers equally representative of each province.

Lowell Murray

In June 2006, Progressive Conservative Senator Lowell Murray and Liberal Senator Jack Austin introduced an amendment to the constitution to alter the makeup of the Senate by enlarging the chamber to 117 members and giving a greater number to the western provinces of British Columbia (12), Alberta (10), Saskatchewan (7), and Manitoba (7).
Lowell Murray, (born 26 September 1936) is a former Canadian senator and long-time activist with the federal Progressive Conservative Party.

Brian Mulroney

MulroneyPrime Minister MulroneyMartin Brian Mulroney
The Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments proposed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, would have required the federal government to choose a senator from a list of persons nominated by the provincial government; the accord, however, failed to obtain the requisite unanimous consent of the provincial legislatures.
Murray would become a close friend, mentor, and adviser who was appointed to the Senate of Canada in 1979.

Bert Brown

One of his appointments was Bert Brown, who was one of Alberta's elected nominees and is the second unofficially elected senator in Canadian history after Stan Waters in 1990.
Bert Brown (March 22, 1938 – February 3, 2018) was a Canadian senator and retired farmer and development consultant who resided in Balzac, Alberta.

Stanley Waters

Stan WatersS. WatersStanley Charles Waters
One of his appointments was Bert Brown, who was one of Alberta's elected nominees and is the second unofficially elected senator in Canadian history after Stan Waters in 1990.
Lieutenant General Stanley Charles Waters CD (June 14, 1920 – September 25, 1991) was Canada's first Senator to be appointed to his Senate seat following a non-binding provincial Senate election.

David Tkachuk

In December 2006, Conservative Senator David Tkachuk, seconded by Liberal Senator Larry Campbell, proposed an addition to the proposed constitutional changes that would provide for 24 senators for British Columbia.
Tkachuk is a member of the Senate of Canada, representing Saskatchewan.

Jack Austin (politician)

Jack AustinJacob Austin
In June 2006, Progressive Conservative Senator Lowell Murray and Liberal Senator Jack Austin introduced an amendment to the constitution to alter the makeup of the Senate by enlarging the chamber to 117 members and giving a greater number to the western provinces of British Columbia (12), Alberta (10), Saskatchewan (7), and Manitoba (7).
Jacob "Jack" Austin (born March 2, 1932) is a Canadian former politician and former member of the Senate of Canada.

Larry Campbell

Larry W. CampbellCampbell
In December 2006, Conservative Senator David Tkachuk, seconded by Liberal Senator Larry Campbell, proposed an addition to the proposed constitutional changes that would provide for 24 senators for British Columbia.
Larry W. Campbell (born February 28, 1948) was the 37th mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and is currently a member of the Senate of Canada.

Meech Lake Accord

Meech LakeMeech Lake Constitutional AccordRobert Bourassa's speech on the end of the Meech Lake Accord
The Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments proposed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, would have required the federal government to choose a senator from a list of persons nominated by the provincial government; the accord, however, failed to obtain the requisite unanimous consent of the provincial legislatures.
Mulroney tasked Senator Lowell Murray with coordinating a possible agreement with the provinces.

Senate Liberal Caucus

Senate LiberalIndependent Liberal
In response, the Senate caucus chose to continue to designate themselves as "Liberal" and continue their own internal caucus as the Senate Liberal Caucus.
The Senate Liberal Caucus (Caucus libéral du Sénat), also known as the Senate Liberals (libéraux au Sénat), was a parliamentary grouping in the Senate of Canada made up of independent senators who are individually members of the Liberal Party of Canada and were appointed on the advice of previous Liberal prime ministers.

Westminster system

WestminsterWestminster-styleWestminster parliamentary system
The Canadian parliament was based on the Westminster model (that is, the model of the Parliament of the United Kingdom).

Western alienation

alienationWestern alienation in CanadaSaskatchewanian independence
Discussion of reforming the appointment mechanism resurfaced alongside the Quiet Revolution and the rise of Western alienation, usually with the chief goal of making the Senate better represent the provinces in parliament.
Because of this uneven population distribution, Western Canadians are less represented in both the House of Commons and the Senate.

Dominic LeBlanc

Dominic
Within a month of the Liberals under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau being sworn in, in December 2015, the Democratic Institutions Minister Maryam Monsef, with the new House leader Dominic LeBlanc, announced a major overhaul of the appointment process as had been promised during the election campaign.
LeBlanc is the son of former Member of Parliament, Senator and Governor General of Canada, Roméo LeBlanc.

1989 Alberta Senate nominee election

1989 Senate Election1989election day
The first of such elections was held in 1989.
It was held in conjunction with Alberta municipal elections under the Local Authorities Election Act., and resulted in the first Canadian Senator appointed following a popular election.

Speaker of the Senate of Canada

Speaker of the SenateSpeakerSenate
Various clerks sit at the table, ready to advise the Speaker and the senators on procedure when necessary.
The Speaker of the Senate of Canada (Président du Sénat du Canada) is the presiding officer of the Senate of Canada.