Seneca the Younger

SenecaLucius Annaeus SenecaSenecanSeneca the philosopherSeneca, Lucius AnnaeusSénèqueyounger SenecaL. Annaeus SenecaLucius A. SenecaLucius Annaeus L. f. Seneca
Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.wikipedia
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List of satirists and satires

satiristsatiristssatire
4 BC – AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

Stoicism

StoicStoicsStoic philosophy
4 BC – AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature. While still young he received philosophical training from Attalus the Stoic, and from Sotion and Papirius Fabianus, both of whom belonged to the short-lived School of the Sextii, which combined Stoicism with Pythagoreanism.
Many Stoics—such as Seneca and Epictetus—emphasized that because "virtue is sufficient for happiness", a sage would be emotionally resilient to misfortune.

Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus

GallioLucius Iunius Gallio AnnaeanusAnnaeanus
His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, and his nephew was the poet Lucan.
Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus or Gallio was a Roman senator and brother of the famous writer Seneca.

Nero

Emperor NeroNero CaesarNero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
In AD 41, Seneca was exiled to the island of Corsica by the emperor Claudius, but was allowed to return in 49 to become a tutor to Nero.
During the early years of his reign, Nero was content to be guided by his mother, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca, and his Praetorian prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus.

Phaedra (Seneca)

PhaedraHippolytusPhaedra'' (Seneca)
As a tragedian, he is best known for plays such as his Medea, Thyestes, and Phaedra.
Phaedra is a Roman tragedy with Greek subject of c. 1280 lines of verse by philosopher and dramatist Lucius Annaeus Seneca, which tells the story of Phaedra, wife of King Theseus of Athens, and her consuming lust for her stepson, Hippolytus.

Thyestes (Seneca)

Thyestes
As a tragedian, he is best known for plays such as his Medea, Thyestes, and Phaedra.
Thyestes is a first century AD fabula crepidata (Roman tragedy with Greek subject) of approximately 1112 lines of verse by Lucius Annaeus Seneca, which tells the story of Thyestes, who unwittingly ate his own children who were slaughtered and served at a banquet by his brother Atreus.

Corsica

CorseCorsicanCyrnus
In AD 41, Seneca was exiled to the island of Corsica by the emperor Claudius, but was allowed to return in 49 to become a tutor to Nero.
Moreover, it was known for its cheap wines, exported to Rome, and was used as a place of relegation, one of the most famous exiles being the Roman philosopher Seneca.

Medea (Seneca)

MedeaMedea'' (Seneca)the play
As a tragedian, he is best known for plays such as his Medea, Thyestes, and Phaedra.
Medea is a fabula crepidata (Roman tragedy with Greek subject) of about 1027 lines of verse written by Seneca.

Sextus Afranius Burrus

Burrus
When Nero became emperor in 54, Seneca became his advisor and, together with the praetorian prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus, provided competent government for the first five years of Nero's reign.
Sextus Afranius Burrus (born AD 1 in Vasio, Gallia Narbonensis; died AD 62) was a prefect of the Praetorian Guard and was, together with Seneca the Younger, an advisor to the Roman emperor Nero, making him a very powerful man in the early years of Nero's reign.

Córdoba, Spain

CórdobaCordobaCórdoba, Andalusia
Seneca was born in Corduba in Hispania, and raised in Rome, where he was trained in rhetoric and philosophy.
The great Roman philosopher Seneca the Younger, his father, the orator Seneca the Elder, and his nephew, the poet Lucan came from Roman Cordoba.

Claudius

Emperor ClaudiusClaudianClaudius Caesar
In AD 41, Seneca was exiled to the island of Corsica by the emperor Claudius, but was allowed to return in 49 to become a tutor to Nero. In 41 AD, Claudius became emperor, and Seneca was accused by the new empress Messalina of adultery with Julia Livilla, sister to Caligula and Agrippina.
Since Claudius was the first Emperor proclaimed on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate, his repute suffered at the hands of commentators (such as Seneca).

Miriam T. Griffin

Miriam Griffin
Miriam Griffin says in her biography of Seneca that "the evidence for Seneca's life before his exile in 41 is so slight, and the potential interest of these years, for social history as well as for biography, is so great that few writers on Seneca have resisted the temptation to eke out knowledge with imagination."
She was a scholar of Roman history and ancient thought, and wrote books on the Emperor Nero and his tutor, Seneca, encouraging an appreciation of the philosophical writings of the ancient Romans within their historical context.

Pompeia Paulina

Paulina
Later in life Seneca was married to a woman younger than himself, Pompeia Paulina.
Pompeia Paulina (fl. 1st century) was the wife of the statesman, philosopher, and orator Lucius Annaeus Seneca, and she was part of a circle of educated Romans who sought to lead a principled life under the emperor Nero.

Seneca the Elder

SenecaLucius Annaeus Senecaelder Seneca
His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, and his nephew was the poet Lucan.
He was the father of Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, best known as a Proconsul of Achaia; his second son was the dramatist and Stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger (Lucius), who was tutor of Nero, and his third son, Marcus Annaeus Mela, became the father of the poet Lucan.

Apocolocyntosis

Apocolocyntosis Divi ClaudiiThe Pumpkinification of Claudius Apocolocyntosis
Seneca's satirical skit Apocolocyntosis, which lampoons the deification of Claudius and praises Nero dates from the earliest period of Nero's reign.
The Apocolocyntosis (divi) Claudii, literally The Gourdification of (the Divine) Claudius, is a political satire on the Roman emperor Claudius, probably written by Seneca the Younger.

De Clementia

On Clemency
In 55 AD, Seneca wrote On Clemency following Nero's murder of Britannicus, perhaps to assure the citizenry that the murder was the end, not the beginning of bloodshed.
De Clementia (frequently translated as On Mercy in English) is a two volume (incomplete) hortatory essay written in 55–56 CE by Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoic philosopher, to the emperor Nero in the first five years of his reign.

Messalina

Valeria Messalina Valeria MessalinaEmpress Messaline
In 41 AD, Claudius became emperor, and Seneca was accused by the new empress Messalina of adultery with Julia Livilla, sister to Caligula and Agrippina.
Within the first year of Claudius' reign, his niece Julia Livilla, only recently recalled from banishment upon the death of her brother Caligula, was exiled again on charges of adultery with Seneca the Younger.

Tragedy

tragediestragictragedian
As a writer Seneca is known for his philosophical works, and for his plays, which are all tragedies.
From the time of the empire, the tragedies of two playwrights survive—one is an unknown author, while the other is the Stoic philosopher Seneca.

Boudica

BoudiccaBoadiceaQueen Boadicea
Cassius Dio even reports that the Boudica uprising in Britannia was caused by Seneca forcing large loans on the indigenous British aristocracy in the aftermath of Claudius's conquest of Britain, and then calling them in suddenly and aggressively.
Cassius Dio explains Boudica's response by saying that previous imperial donations to influential Britons were confiscated and the Roman financier and philosopher Seneca called in the loans he had forced on the reluctant Britons.

Naturales quaestiones

Quaestiones NaturalesNatural Questions
It was during these final few years that he composed two of his greatest works: Naturales quaestiones—an encyclopedia of the natural world; and his Letters to Lucilius—which document his philosophical thoughts.
Naturales quaestiones is a Latin work of natural philosophy written by Seneca around 65 AD.

De Vita Beata

Seneca was sensitive to such accusations: his De Vita Beata ("On the Happy Life") dates from around this time and includes a defense of wealth along Stoic lines, arguing that properly gaining and spending wealth is appropriate behaviour for a philosopher.
De Vita Beata ("On the Happy Life") is a dialogue written by Seneca the Younger around the year 58 AD.

Lucan

Marcus Annaeus LucanusLucanusArgentaria, Polla
His father was Seneca the Elder, his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus, and his nephew was the poet Lucan.
Lucan was the son of Marcus Annaeus Mela and grandson of Seneca the Elder; he grew up under the tutelage of his uncle Seneca the Younger.

Posidonius

PoseidoniusPosidonius of ApameaPoseidonios
Seneca built on the writings of many of the earlier Stoics: he often mentions Zeno, Cleanthes, and Chrysippus; and frequently cites Posidonius, with whom Seneca shared an interest in natural phenomena.
Writers such as Strabo and Seneca provide most of the information, from history, about his life.

Sotion (Pythagorean)

Sotion
While still young he received philosophical training from Attalus the Stoic, and from Sotion and Papirius Fabianus, both of whom belonged to the short-lived School of the Sextii, which combined Stoicism with Pythagoreanism.
Sotion was the teacher of Seneca the Younger, who "sat as a lad, in the school of the philosopher Sotion."

Classical Latin

LatinistLatinclassical
4 BC – AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.