Sensor

sensorsdetectorsensingresolutionchemical sensorsdetectorschemical sensoroptical sensorsensor resolutionDistance sensor
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.wikipedia
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Tactile sensor

tactile perceptiontactile sensingtactels
Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware.
Tactile sensors are used in robotics, computer hardware and security systems.

Microcontroller

microcontrollersMCUmicro-controller
With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement, for example into MARG sensors.
In the context of the internet of things, microcontrollers are an economical and popular means of data collection, sensing and actuating the physical world as edge devices.

Microelectromechanical systems

MEMSmicroelectromechanical systemmicrosystem
Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology.
They usually consist of a central unit that processes data (an integrated circuit chip such as microprocessor) and several components that interact with the surroundings (such as microsensors).

Accuracy and precision

accuracyprecisionaccurate
The resolution is related to the precision with which the measurement is made, but they are not the same thing.
In addition to accuracy and precision, measurements may also have a measurement resolution, which is the smallest change in the underlying physical quantity that produces a response in the measurement.

Micromachinery

micromachinemicromachinesmicromachining
With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement, for example into MARG sensors.
Most micromachines act as transducers; in other words, they are either sensors or actuators.

Transducer

transducerstransductiontransduce
Consequently, a characteristic physical parameter varies and this variation is reported by means of an integrated transducer that generates the output signal.

Wireless sensor network

sensor networkwireless sensor networkssensor networks
Other MOS sensors include intelligent sensors and wireless sensor network (WSN) technology.
WSNs are spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location.

Analog-to-digital converter

ADCanalog to digital converteranalog-to-digital conversion
For an analog sensor signal to be processed, or used in digital equipment, it needs to be converted to a digital signal, using an analog-to-digital converter.
Many sensors in scientific instruments produce an analog signal; temperature, pressure, pH, light intensity etc. All these signals can be amplified and fed to an ADC to produce a digital number proportional to the input signal.

MOSFET

metal-oxide-semiconductorMOSMOS integrated circuit
Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology originates from the MOSFET (MOS field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng in 1959, and demonstrated in 1960.
A number of MOSFET sensors have been developed, for measuring physical, chemical, biological and environmental parameters.

Piet Bergveld

The earliest MOSFET sensors include the open-gate field-effect transistor (OGFET) introduced by Johannessen in 1970, the ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) invented by Piet Bergveld in 1970, the adsorption FET (ADFET) patented by P.F. Cox in 1974, and a hydrogen-sensitive MOSFET demonstrated by I. Lundstrom, M.S. Shivaraman, C.S. Svenson and L. Lundkvist in 1975.
He is the inventor of the ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor.

Image sensor

image sensorssensorsensors
MOS technology is the basis for modern image sensors, including the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the CMOS active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), used in digital imaging and digital cameras.
An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image.

Chemical field-effect transistor

By the mid-1980s, numerous other MOSFET sensors had been developed, including the gas sensor FET (GASFET), surface accessible FET (SAFET), charge flow transistor (CFT), pressure sensor FET (PRESSFET), chemical field-effect transistor (ChemFET), reference ISFET (REFET), biosensor FET (BioFET), enzyme-modified FET (ENFET) and immunologically modified FET (IMFET).
A ChemFET is a chemically-sensitive field-effect transistor, that is a field-effect transistor used as a sensor for measuring chemical concentrations in solution.

Gas detector

gas sensorgas detectiongas sensors
By the mid-1980s, numerous other MOSFET sensors had been developed, including the gas sensor FET (GASFET), surface accessible FET (SAFET), charge flow transistor (CFT), pressure sensor FET (PRESSFET), chemical field-effect transistor (ChemFET), reference ISFET (REFET), biosensor FET (BioFET), enzyme-modified FET (ENFET) and immunologically modified FET (IMFET). MOS gas detector sensors are used to detect carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and other gas substances.
Gas leak detection is the process of identifying potentially hazardous gas leaks by sensors.

Hydrogel

gel
The encapsulation of the biological component in biosensors, presents a slightly different problem that ordinary sensors; this can either be done by means of a semipermeable barrier, such as a dialysis membrane or a hydrogel, or a 3D polymer matrix, which either physically constrains the sensing macromolecule or chemically constrains the macromolecule by bounding it to the scaffold.
Chemomechanical polymers are mostly also hydrogels, which upon stimulation change their volume and can serve as actuators or sensors.

Optical mouse

modern optical computer mouseoptical micecomputer mouse pointing devices
MOS image sensors are widely used in optical mouse technology.
Modern surface-independent optical mice work by using an optoelectronic sensor (essentially, a tiny low-resolution video camera) to take successive images of the surface on which the mouse operates.

ISFET

ion-sensitive field-effect transistorreference ISFETion-sensitive
The earliest MOSFET sensors include the open-gate field-effect transistor (OGFET) introduced by Johannessen in 1970, the ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) invented by Piet Bergveld in 1970, the adsorption FET (ADFET) patented by P.F. Cox in 1974, and a hydrogen-sensitive MOSFET demonstrated by I. Lundstrom, M.S. Shivaraman, C.S. Svenson and L. Lundkvist in 1975. By the mid-1980s, numerous other MOSFET sensors had been developed, including the gas sensor FET (GASFET), surface accessible FET (SAFET), charge flow transistor (CFT), pressure sensor FET (PRESSFET), chemical field-effect transistor (ChemFET), reference ISFET (REFET), biosensor FET (BioFET), enzyme-modified FET (ENFET) and immunologically modified FET (IMFET).
Dutch engineer Piet Bergveld, at the University of Twente, later studied the MOSFET and realized it could be adapted into a sensor for electrochemical and biological applications.

Central processing unit

CPUprocessorprocessors
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

Attitude and heading reference system

AHRSAttitude and Heading Reference SystemsAttitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS)
With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement, for example into MARG sensors.

Potentiometer

rheostatpotentiometersvariable resistor
Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used.

Force-sensing resistor

FSRforce sensorForce-sensing resistor (FSR)
Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used.

Microscopic scale

microscopicmicromicroscopic level
Technological progress allows more and more sensors to be manufactured on a microscopic scale as microsensors using MEMS technology.

Macroscopic scale

macroscopicmacromacroscopically
In most cases, a microsensor reaches a significantly faster measurement time and higher sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches.

Linearity

linearlinearlycomplex linear
Most sensors have a linear transfer function.

Transfer function

transfertransfer characteristicchannel transfer function
Most sensors have a linear transfer function.

Sensitivity (electronics)

sensitivitysensitivereceiver sensitivity
The sensitivity is then defined as the ratio between the output signal and measured property.