# Sensor array

uniform linear array
A sensor array is a group of sensors, usually deployed in a certain geometry pattern, used for collecting and processing electromagnetic or acoustic signals.wikipedia
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### Beamforming

beam formingbeamformerAntenna beamforming
The process of multiplying a well selected set of weights to the signals received by the sensor array so that the signal is added constructively while suppressing the noise is called beamforming.There are a variety of beamforming algorithms for sensor arrays, such as the delay-and-sum approach, spectral based (non-parametric) approaches and parametric approaches.
Beamforming or spatial filtering is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception.

### SAMV (algorithm)

SAMViterative Sparse Asymptotic Minimum Variance
SAMV beamforming algorithm is a sparse signal reconstruction based algorithm which explicitly exploits the time invariant statistical characteristic of the covariance matrix.
Suppose an M-element uniform linear array (ULA) receive K narrow band signals emitted from sources located at locations, respectively.

### Antenna gain

gaindirective gaingain of an antenna
For example an array of radio antenna elements used for beamforming can increase antenna gain in the direction of the signal while decreasing the gain in other directions, i.e., increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by amplifying the signal coherently.

### Signal-to-noise ratio

signal to noise ratioSNRsignal-to-noise
For example an array of radio antenna elements used for beamforming can increase antenna gain in the direction of the signal while decreasing the gain in other directions, i.e., increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by amplifying the signal coherently.

### Direction of arrival

direction-of-arrival
Another example of sensor array application is to estimate the direction of arrival of impinging electromagnetic waves.

The related processing method is called array signal processing. Application examples of array signal processing include radar/sonar, wireless communications, seismology, machine condition monitoring, astronomical observations fault diagnosis, etc.

### Sonar

asdicvariable depth sonaractive sonar
The related processing method is called array signal processing. Application examples of array signal processing include radar/sonar, wireless communications, seismology, machine condition monitoring, astronomical observations fault diagnosis, etc.

### Seismology

seismicseismologistseismologists
The related processing method is called array signal processing. Application examples of array signal processing include radar/sonar, wireless communications, seismology, machine condition monitoring, astronomical observations fault diagnosis, etc.

### Diagnosis

diagnosticdiagnosticsdiagnose
The related processing method is called array signal processing. Application examples of array signal processing include radar/sonar, wireless communications, seismology, machine condition monitoring, astronomical observations fault diagnosis, etc.

### Estimation theory

parameter estimationestimationestimated
This is known as parameter estimation.

### Near and far field

far fieldnear fieldnear-field
In this example, the sensor array is assumed to be in the far-field of a signal source so that it can be treated as planar wave.

### Phase velocity

phase speedphase velocitiesphase
Eq. (1) shows the calculation for the extra time it takes to reach each antenna in the array relative to the first one, where c is the velocity of the wave.

### Antenna array

directional arrayplanar arrayarray
Antenna array (electromagnetic), a geometrical arrangement of antenna elements with a deliberate relationship between their currents, forming a single antenna usually to achieve a desired radiation pattern

### Phased array

Phased array, An antenna array where the phase shifts (and amplitudes) applied to the elements are modified electronically, typically in order to steer the antenna system's directional pattern, without the use of moving parts

### Smart antenna

smart antennasantennaantenna array
Smart antenna, a phased array in which a signal processor computes phase shifts to optimize reception and/or transmission to a receiver on the fly, such as is performed by cellular telephone towers

### Interferometry

interferometerinterferometricoptical interferometry
Interferometric array of radio telescopes or optical telescopes, used to achieve high resolution through interferometric correlation

### Direction finding

Watson-Watt / Adcock antenna array, using the Watson-Watt technique whereby two Adcock antenna pairs are used to perform an amplitude comparison on the incoming signal

### Microphone array

arraysacoustical arraysarray
Microphone array is used in acoustic measurement and beamforming

### Line array

arraysline source arrayline-array
Loudspeaker array is used in acoustic measurement and beamforming

### Geophone

Geophone arraygeophone flute
Geophone array used in Reflection seismology

### Reflection seismology

seismic reflectionseismic explorationseismic
Geophone array used in Reflection seismology

### Towed array sonar

towed arraytowed sonar arraytowfish
Sonar array is an array of hydrophones used in underwater imaging

### Fourier transform

Fouriercontinuous Fourier transformuncertainty principle
The Fourier transform transforms the signal from the time domain to the frequency domain.

### White noise

whitestaticnoise
Assuming zero-mean Gaussian white noise, the basic model of the spatial covariance matrix is given by

### Spectrogram

sonogramsonogramsspectrograms
The Bartlett beamformer is a natural extension of conventional spectral analysis (spectrogram) to the sensor array.