Sentence (law)

sentencesentencedsentencingsentencesprison sentencepenaltypenaltiesconcurrent sentenceconcurrentlyconsecutively
The term sentence in law refers to punishment that was actually ordered or could be ordered by a trial court in a criminal procedure.wikipedia
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Crime

criminalcriminalscriminal offence
The sentence can generally involve a decree of imprisonment, a fine, and/or punishments against a defendant convicted of a crime.
If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.

Prison

jailgaolpenitentiary
Additional sentences include intermediate, which allows an inmate to be free for about 8 hours a day for work purposes determinate, which is fixed on a number of days, months, or years; and indeterminate or bifurcated, which mandates the minimum period be served in an institutional setting such as a prison followed by street time period of parole, supervised release or probation until the total sentence is completed.
Prisons are most commonly used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until their trial; those pleading or being found guilty of crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of imprisonment.

Imprisonment

incarcerationIncarceratedimprisoned
The sentence can generally involve a decree of imprisonment, a fine, and/or punishments against a defendant convicted of a crime.
Courts of the United States, including the U.S. Supreme Court, have recognized that the minimum period in an indeterminate sentence that was actually imposed by a court of law is the official term of imprisonment.

Collateral consequences of criminal conviction

collateral consequences of criminal chargescollateral consequencescollateral civil consequences
However, in certain legal systems, a defendant may be punished beyond the terms of the sentence social stigma, loss of governmental benefits, or collectively, the collateral consequences of criminal charges.
If the defendant is found guilty or pleads guilty, the sentencing authority (usually a judge) imposes a sentence.

Sentencing guidelines

sentencing guidelinesentencing statute
Statutes generally specify the highest penalties that may be imposed for certain offenses, and sentencing guidelines often mandate the minimum and maximum imprisonment terms to imposed upon an offender, which is then left to the discretion of the trial court.
Sentencing guidelines are non-binding guidelines that inform sentencing in law.

Law

legallawslegal theory
The term sentence in law refers to punishment that was actually ordered or could be ordered by a trial court in a criminal procedure.
Modern criminal law has been affected considerably by the social sciences, especially with respect to sentencing, legal research, legislation, and rehabilitation.

Habitual offender

career criminalhabitual criminalcareer criminals
For instance, an armed career criminal or habitual offender law may subject a defendant to a significant increase in his sentence if he commits a third offence of a certain kind.
Habitual offender laws may provide for mandatory sentencing - in which a minimum sentence must be imposed, or may allow judicial discretion in allowing the court to determine a proper sentence.

Conviction

convictedcriminal convictionconvictions
The sentence can generally involve a decree of imprisonment, a fine, and/or punishments against a defendant convicted of a crime.
After a defendant is convicted, the court determines the appropriate sentence as a punishment.

Incapacitation (penology)

incapacitationincapacitatingincapacitated
Incapacitation in the context of criminal sentencing philosophy is one of the functions of punishment.

Criminal Justice Act 2003

Criminal Justice Act20032003 c. 44
In England and Wales, section 142 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 has specified that in cases involving those over 18, courts should have regard to punishment of the offenders retribution, deterrence, reform and rehabilitation, protection of the public, and reparation to persons affected by their offences.
It amends the law relating to police powers, bail, disclosure, allocation of criminal offences, prosecution appeals, autrefois acquit ("double jeopardy"), hearsay, propensity evidence, bad character evidence, sentencing and release on licence.

Denunciation (penology)

Denunciationdenunciatory theory
Denunciation in the context of sentencing philosophy demonstrates the disapproval of an act by society expressed by the imposition of a punishment.

Criminal costs

costs of their prosecutionlegal costprosecution costs
Criminal costs are financial penalties awarded against convicted criminals, in addition to the sentence they receive, in recognition of the costs of the court in bringing the prosecution.

Sentencing disparity

consistency of sentencingdisparity in criminal sentencing
Sentencing disparity is defined as "a form of unequal treatment [in criminal punishment] that is often of unexplained cause and is at least incongruous, unfair and disadvantaging in consequence".

Criminal sentencing in the United States

criminal sentencingcriminal sentencing in Americadeterminate sentence
Those given short sentences usually serve the full-time (do "day-for-day") as imposed by the judge, or might receive time off for good behavior, based on state or local rules and regulations.

Punishment

punitivepunishpunishments
The term sentence in law refers to punishment that was actually ordered or could be ordered by a trial court in a criminal procedure.

Trial court

court of first instancefirst instancecourts of first instance
The term sentence in law refers to punishment that was actually ordered or could be ordered by a trial court in a criminal procedure.

Criminal procedure

criminal trialcriminal proceedingsinvestigation
The term sentence in law refers to punishment that was actually ordered or could be ordered by a trial court in a criminal procedure.

Judge

JusticeJJjustices
A sentence forms the final explicit act of a judge-ruled process as well as the symbolic principal act connected to their function.

Fine (penalty)

finefinesfined
The sentence can generally involve a decree of imprisonment, a fine, and/or punishments against a defendant convicted of a crime.

Defendant

defendantscriminal defendantco-defendant
The sentence can generally involve a decree of imprisonment, a fine, and/or punishments against a defendant convicted of a crime.

Parole

paroledsupervised releasenon-parole period
Additional sentences include intermediate, which allows an inmate to be free for about 8 hours a day for work purposes determinate, which is fixed on a number of days, months, or years; and indeterminate or bifurcated, which mandates the minimum period be served in an institutional setting such as a prison followed by street time period of parole, supervised release or probation until the total sentence is completed.

United States federal probation and supervised release

supervised releasefederal supervised releaseProbation and supervised release under United States federal law
Additional sentences include intermediate, which allows an inmate to be free for about 8 hours a day for work purposes determinate, which is fixed on a number of days, months, or years; and indeterminate or bifurcated, which mandates the minimum period be served in an institutional setting such as a prison followed by street time period of parole, supervised release or probation until the total sentence is completed.

Probation

Probation Serviceprobationaryprobationer
Additional sentences include intermediate, which allows an inmate to be free for about 8 hours a day for work purposes determinate, which is fixed on a number of days, months, or years; and indeterminate or bifurcated, which mandates the minimum period be served in an institutional setting such as a prison followed by street time period of parole, supervised release or probation until the total sentence is completed.

Murder

first-degree murderfirst degree murdersecond-degree murder
Rarely depending on circumstances, murder charges are mitigated and reduced to manslaughter charges.

Manslaughter

involuntary manslaughterintoxication manslaughterinvoluntary homicide
Rarely depending on circumstances, murder charges are mitigated and reduced to manslaughter charges.