Sentence (linguistics)wikipedia
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
sentencesentencesdeclarative sentencedeclarativedeclarative statementdeclarative statementsstatementexpressiondeclarative sentencesstatements

Question

questionwh-questionanswer
A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion.
Many languages have special grammatical forms for questions (for example, in the English sentence "Are you happy?", the inversion of the subject you and the verb are shows it to be a question rather than a statement).

Word

wordwordsverbal
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

Phrase

phrasephrasesphrasal
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."
In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.
The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like.

Linguistics

linguisticslinguistlinguistic
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.

Finite verb

finite verbfinitefinite forms
Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the inclusion of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
See also copula for the consequences of the verb to be on the theory of sentence structure.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."

Clause

clauseclausesfinite clause
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."
A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent.

Function word

function wordgrammatical wordfunctional
As with all language expressions, sentences might contain function and content words and contain properties such as characteristic intonation and timing patterns.
In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

the usual pangramquick brown foxThe quick brown fox ''jumps'' over the lazy dog
Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the inclusion of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
"The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" is an English-language pangram—a sentence that contains all of the letters of the alphabet.

Sentence clause structure

complex sentencesimple sentencecompound sentence
One traditional scheme for classifying English sentences is by clause structure, the number and types of clauses in the sentence with finite verbs.
In grammar, sentence clause structure commonly known as sentence composition is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure.

Punctuation

punctuationpunctuation markpunctuation marks
In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences.

Dependent clause

subordinate clausedependent clausesubordinate clauses
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.

Sentence word

sentence wordword sentencesentence words
Sentences that comprise a single word are called word sentences, and the words themselves sentence words.
A sentence word (also called a one-word sentence) is a single word that forms a full sentence.

Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here"; the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.

Sentence arrangement

Sentence arrangement refers to the location of ideas and the placement of emphasis within a sentence.

Inflectional phrase

inflectional phraseinflection phrasetensed I
An inflectional phrase is essentially the same as a sentence, but reflects an analysis whereby a sentence can be treated as having a head, complement and specifier, like other kinds of phrases.

Independent clause

independent clausemain clausematrix clause
In the following example sentences, independent clauses are underlined, and conjunctions are in bold.

Syntax

syntaxsyntacticsyntactical
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

Norm (philosophy)

normativenormnorms
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.

Semicolon

semicolon;؛
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.