Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentencedeclarativedeclarative statementdeclarative statementsstatementexpressiondeclarative sentencesstatements
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.wikipedia
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Word

wordsverballexical
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was ran over by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

Phrase

phrasesphrasalword-group
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is synonymous with expression. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.
The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to complete an idea about the subject, such as what it does or what it is like.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical phrases and sentences

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the inclusion of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
See also copula for the consequences of the verb to be on the theory of sentence structure.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."

Clause

clausesfinite clausesubordinate clauses
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."
A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent.

Function word

grammatical wordfunctionalfunction
As with all language expressions, sentences might contain function and content words and contain properties such as characteristic intonation and timing patterns.
In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

the usual pangramThe quick brown fox ''jumps'' over the lazy dogquick brown fox
Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the inclusion of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
"The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" is an English-language pangram—a sentence that contains all of the letters of the alphabet.

Sentence clause structure

complex sentencesimple sentencecompound sentence
One traditional scheme for classifying English sentences is by clause structure, the number and types of clauses in the sentence with finite verbs.
In grammar, sentence clause structure commonly known as sentence composition is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure.

Question

wh-questionanswerquestions
A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion.
Languages may use both syntax and prosody to distinguish interrogative sentences (which pose questions) from declarative sentences (which state propositions).

Punctuation

punctuation markpunctuation markspunctus
A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both.
In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences.

Dependent clause

subordinate clausesubordinate clausessubordinate
A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.

Sentence word

sentence wordsword sentencesword sentence
Sentences that comprise a single word are called word sentences, and the words themselves sentence words.
A sentence word (also called a one-word sentence) is a single word that forms a full sentence.

Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
Grammatical polarity
Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here"; the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.

Sentence arrangement

Sentence arrangement
Sentence arrangement refers to the location of ideas and the placement of emphasis within a sentence.

Inflectional phrase

tensed Iinflection phraseAgreement phrase
Inflectional phrase
An inflectional phrase is essentially the same as a sentence, but reflects an analysis whereby a sentence can be treated as having a head, complement and specifier, like other kinds of phrases.

Independent clause

main clausematrix clausemain clauses
A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
In the following example sentences, independent clauses are underlined, and conjunctions are in bold.

Sentence function

Allofunctional implicature
Sentence function
Sentence (linguistics)

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

Norm (philosophy)

normativenormnorms
Norms are concepts (sentences) of practical import, oriented to effecting an action, rather than conceptual abstractions that describe, explain, and express.

Semicolon

;؛ Semicolon [;]
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.

Language acquisition

language learningfirst language acquisitionacquisition
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.