Sentence (linguistics)

sentencesentencesdeclarative sentencedeclarativedeclarative sentencesdeclarative statementdeclarative statementsexpressionSententialstatement
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.wikipedia
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Word

wordsverballexical
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
A word may consist of a single morpheme (for example: oh!, rock, red, quick, run, expect), or several (rocks, redness, quickly, running, unexpected), whereas a morpheme may not be able to stand on its own as a word (in the words just mentioned, these are -s, -ness, -ly, -ing, un-, -ed).A complex word will typically include a root and one or more affixes (rock-s, red-ness, quick-ly, run-ning, un-expect-ed), or more than one root in a compound (black-board, sand-box). Words can be put together to build larger elements of language, such as phrases (a red rock, put up with), clauses (I threw a rock), and sentences (He threw a rock too, but he missed).

Phrase

phrasesphrasalword-group
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is synonymous with expression. In linguistic analysis, a phrase is a group of words (or possibly a single word) that functions as a constituent in the syntax of a sentence, a single unit within a grammatical hierarchy.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Syntax, the study of how words combine to form grammatical phrases and sentences

Subject (grammar)

subjectsubjectsgrammatical subject
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was ran over by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

Question

answerwh-questionquestions
A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion.
Languages may use both syntax and prosody to distinguish interrogative sentences (which pose questions) from declarative sentences (which state propositions).

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
Typically a sentence contains a subject and predicate.
The predicate is one of the two main parts of a sentence (the other being the subject, which the predicate modifies).

Clause

clausesfinite clauseclausal
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."
A simple sentence usually consists of a single finite clause with a finite verb that is independent.

Function word

grammatical wordfunctionalfunction
As with all language expressions, sentences might contain function and content words and contain properties such as characteristic intonation and timing patterns.
In linguistics, function words (also called functors) are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning and express grammatical relationships among other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker.

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the inclusion of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.

The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog

quick brown foxThe quick brown fox ''jumps'' over the lazy dogThe quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog
Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the inclusion of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
"The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" is an English-language pangram—a sentence that contains all of the letters of the alphabet.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
See also copula for the consequences of the verb to be on the theory of sentence structure.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."

Sentence clause structure

complex sentencesimple sentencecompound sentence
One traditional scheme for classifying English sentences is by clause structure, the number and types of clauses in the sentence with finite verbs.
In grammar, sentence clause structure commonly known as sentence composition is the classification of sentences based on the number and kind of clauses in their syntactic structure.

Dependent clause

subordinate clausesubordinate clausessubordinate
A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand as a sentence.

Punctuation

punctuation markpunctuation marksFrench
A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both.
In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences.

Sentence word

sentence wordsword sentenceword sentences
Sentences that comprise a single word are called word sentences, and the words themselves sentence words.
A sentence word (also called a one-word sentence) is a single word that forms a full sentence.

Intonation (linguistics)

intonationintonationalintonations
As with all language expressions, sentences might contain function and content words and contain properties such as characteristic intonation and timing patterns.
Declarative sentences go from pitch level 3 to 5 and then down to 2 and 1.

Affirmation and negation

negationnegativepolarity
Grammatical polarity
Examples are the sentences "Jane is here" and "Jane is not here"; the first is affirmative, while the second is negative.

Independent clause

main clausematrix clauseindependent clauses
A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
In the following example sentences, independent clauses are underlined, and conjunctions are in bold.

Sentence arrangement

Sentence arrangement
Sentence arrangement refers to the location of ideas and the placement of emphasis within a sentence.

Inflectional phrase

inflection phraseAgreement phrasetensed I
Inflectional phrase
An inflectional phrase is essentially the same as a sentence, but reflects an analysis whereby a sentence can be treated as having a head, complement and specifier, like other kinds of phrases.

T-unit

T-unit
Often, but not always, a T-unit is a sentence.

Sentence function

Allofunctional implicature
Sentence function
Sentence (linguistics)

Imperative mood

imperativeimperativesprohibitive
A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion.

Suggestion

suggestedsuggestibleclaimed
A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion.

Context (language use)

contextcontextscontextual
A sentence is a set of words that in principle tells a complete thought (although it may make little sense taken in isolation out of context) It may be a simple phrase, but it conveys enough meaning to imply a clause, even if it is not explicit; for example, "Two" as a sentence (in answer to the question "How many were there?") implies the clause "There were two."