Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and statedisestablishedchurch-state separationseparation between church and statedisestablishseparation of state and religionhostile" approach to the issue of church and state separationseparate church and state
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.wikipedia
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Laïcité

Laicismlaicistlaic
The strict application of secular principle of laïcité (secularity) is used in France, while secular societies, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom, maintain a form of constitutional recognition of an official state religion.
In its strict and official acceptance, it is the principle of separation of church (or religion) and state.

Secularism

secularsecularistsecularists
The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere.
In certain context, the word can refer to anticlericalism, atheism, desire to exclude religion from social activities or civic affairs, banishment of religious symbols from the public sphere, state neutrality toward religion, the separation of religion from state, or disestablishment (separation of church and state).

Secular state

secularstate secularismsecular country
Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state.
Movements for laïcité in France and separation of church and state in the United States have defined modern concepts of secularism.

State religion

Established Churchofficial religionestablished
The strict application of secular principle of laïcité (secularity) is used in France, while secular societies, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom, maintain a form of constitutional recognition of an official state religion. In England, there is a constitutionally established state religion but other faiths are tolerated. Shinto became the state religion in Japan with the Meiji Restoration in 1868, and suppression of other religions ensued.
As of 2012, there are only five state churches left, as most countries that once featured state churches have separated the church from their government.

Caesaropapism

CaesaropapistCesaropapismAbolished
Sometimes this began to be used by a monarch to support the notion that the king ruled both his own kingdom and Church within its boundaries, a theory known as caesaropapism.
Both caesaropapism and theocracy are systems in which there is no separation of church and state and in which the two form parts of a single power-structure.

English Dissenters

DissentersDissentingDissenter
This eventually led to Nonconformism, English Dissenters, and the anti-Catholicism of Oliver Cromwell, the Commonwealth of England, and the Penal Laws against Catholics and others who did not adhere to the Church of England.
English Dissenters opposed state interference in religious matters, founded their own churches, educational establishments and communities.

Secularity

secularnon-religioussecularized
The strict application of secular principle of laïcité (secularity) is used in France, while secular societies, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom, maintain a form of constitutional recognition of an official state religion.
For example, the United States has both separation of church and state and pro-religiosity in various forms such as protection of religious freedoms; France has separation of church and state (and Revolutionary France was strongly anti-religious); the Soviet Union was anti-religion; in India, people feel comfortable identifying as secular while participating in religion; and in Japan, since the concept of "religion" is not indigenous to Japan, people state they have no religion while doing what appears to be religion to Western eyes.

Voltaire

François-Marie ArouetVoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
Voltaire defended some level of separation but ultimately subordinated the Church to the needs of the State while Denis Diderot, for instance, was a partisan of a strict separation of Church and State, saying "the distance between the throne and the altar can never be too great".
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire ( also, ), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, as well as his advocacy of freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and separation of church and state.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
During the 18th century, the ideas of Locke and Bayle, in particular the separation of Church and State, became more common, promoted by the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the sovereignty of reason and the evidence of the senses as the primary sources of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, progress, toleration, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.

Religious pluralism

pluralismpluralisticpluralist
The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere.
The Age of Enlightenment in Europe triggered a sweeping transformation about religion after the French Revolution (liberalism, democracy, civil and political rights, freedom of thought, separation of Church and State, secularization), with rising acceptance of religious pluralism and decline of Christianity.

First Amendment to the United States Constitution

First AmendmentFirstU.S. Const. amend. I
In that letter, referencing the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Jefferson writes:
Everson used the metaphor of a wall of separation between church and state, derived from the correspondence of President Thomas Jefferson.

Religious organization

Religious organisationreligious institutionsreligious
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
In some countries, the government is prohibited by law from establishing or supporting religions by separation of church and state, though there may be exceptions to such rules.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
The concept of separating church and state is often credited to the writings of English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704).
Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State.

Toleration

tolerancereligious tolerancereligious toleration
In England, there is a constitutionally established state religion but other faiths are tolerated.
"Milton argued for disestablishment as the only effective way of achieving broad toleration. Rather than force a man's conscience, government should recognize the persuasive force of the gospel."

Sphere sovereignty

distinction of spheresruled in the secular sphereseparate spheres of influence
In the West the issue of the separation of church and state during the medieval period centered on monarchs who ruled in the secular sphere but encroached on the Church's rule of the spiritual sphere.
Kuyper based the idea of sphere sovereignty partially on the Christian view of existence coram Deo, every part of human life exists equally and directly “before the face of God.” For Kuyper, this meant that sphere sovereignty involved a certain form of separation of church and state and a separation of state and other societal spheres, or anti-statism.

Shinto

ShintoismShintōShintoist
Shinto became the state religion in Japan with the Meiji Restoration in 1868, and suppression of other religions ensued.
Following Japan's defeat in World War II, Shinto was formally separated from the state.

Constitution of Italy

Italian ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of the Italian Republic
In Italy the principle of separation of church and state is enshrined in Article 7 of the Constitution, which states: "The State and the Catholic Church are independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere. Their relations are regulated by the Lateran pacts. Amendments to such Pacts which are accepted by both parties shall not require the procedure of constitutional amendments."
The State and the Catholic Church are recognised as independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere.

Two kingdoms doctrine

doctrine of the two kingdomsTwo KingdomsDoctrine of Two Swords
At the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther articulated a doctrine of the two kingdoms.

Reformation

Protestant Reformationthe ReformationProtestant
At the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther articulated a doctrine of the two kingdoms.

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
In English, the exact term is an offshoot of the phrase, "wall of separation between church and state", as written in Thomas Jefferson's letter to the Danbury Baptist Association in 1802.
He interpreted the First Amendment as having built "a wall of separation between Church and State."

Freedom of religion

religious freedomreligious libertyfreedom of worship
The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere. Freedom of religion in Croatia is a right defined by the Constitution, which also defines all religious communities as equal in front of the law and separated from the state.
Therefore, strict separation of church and state has to be kept.

Anabaptism

AnabaptistAnabaptistsAnabaptist Churches
Those of the Radical Reformation (the Anabaptists) took Luther's ideas in new direction, most notably in the writings of Michael Sattler (1490–1527), who agreed with Luther that there were two kingdoms, but differed in arguing that these two kingdoms should be separate, and hence baptized believers should not vote, serve in public office or participate in any other way with the "kingdom of the world".

Shinto Directive

The Shinto Directive issued by the occupation government required that all state support for and involvement in any religious or Shinto institution or doctrine stop, including funding, coverage in textbooks, and official acts and ceremonies.
The purpose of the directive was ostensibly based in ideas of freedom of religion and separation of church and state.

National church

Churchnationalculturally unique
The Kirk remains a national church to which the state has special obligations; it is conventional that the monarch, who is head of state, must attend the Church when she visits Scotland, and they swear in their accession oath to maintain and preserve the church.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, in a draft discussing the question of church and state around 1828 wrote that

Croatia

Republic of CroatiaCroatianCRO
Freedom of religion in Croatia is a right defined by the Constitution, which also defines all religious communities as equal in front of the law and separated from the state.
Freedom of religion is a right defined by the Constitution which also defines all religious communities as equal before the law and separated from the state.