Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and statedisestablishedchurch-state separationdisestablishseparation between church and stateseparation of state and religionhostile" approach to the issue of church and state separationseparate church and state
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.wikipedia
1,295 Related Articles

Laïcité

laicismlaicistlaic
The strict application of secular principle of laïcité (secularity) is used in France, while secular societies, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom, maintain a form of constitutional recognition of an official state religion.
In its strict and official acceptance, it is the principle of separation of church (or religion) and state.

Secular state

secularstate secularismsecular country
Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state.
Movements for laïcité in France and for the separation of church and state in the United States defined modern concepts of secularism.

State religion

state churchestablished churchofficial religion
The strict application of secular principle of laïcité (secularity) is used in France, while secular societies, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom, maintain a form of constitutional recognition of an official state religion. In England, there is a constitutionally established state religion but other faiths are tolerated.
As of 2012, there are only five state churches left, as most countries that once featured state churches have separated the church from their government.

Caesaropapism

caesaropapistAbolishedCaesaropapism in the Eastern Church
Sometimes this began to be used by a monarch to support the notion that the king ruled both his own kingdom and Church within its boundaries, a theory known as caesaropapism.
Both caesaropapism and theocracy are systems in which there is no separation of church and state and in which the two form parts of a single power-structure.

English Dissenters

DissentersDissentingDissenter
This eventually led to Nonconformism, English Dissenters, and the anti-Catholicism of Oliver Cromwell, the Commonwealth of England, and the Penal Laws against Catholics and others who did not adhere to the Church of England.
English Dissenters opposed state interference in religious matters, founded their own churches, educational establishments, and communities.

Voltaire

VoltairianFrançois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)Voltairianism
Voltaire defended some level of separation but ultimately subordinated the Church to the needs of the State while Denis Diderot, for instance, was a partisan of a strict separation of Church and State, saying "the distance between the throne and the altar can never be too great".
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophy
During the 18th century, the ideas of Locke and Bayle, in particular the separation of Church and State, became more common, promoted by the philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.

Religious pluralism

pluralismpluralisticpluralist
The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere.
The Age of Enlightenment in Europe triggered a sweeping transformation about religion after the French Revolution (liberalism, democracy, civil and political rights, freedom of thought, separation of Church and State, secularization), with rising acceptance of religious pluralism and decline of Christianity.

Secularism

secularsecularistsecularists
The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere.
In political terms, secularism is a movement towards the separation of religion and government (often termed the separation of church and state).

First Amendment to the United States Constitution

First AmendmentFirstU.S. Const. amend. I
In that letter, referencing the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Jefferson writes:
Everson used the metaphor of a wall of separation between church and state, derived from the correspondence of President Thomas Jefferson.

Religious organization

religious institutionreligious institutionsreligious organizations
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
In some countries, the government is prohibited by law from establishing or supporting religions by separation of church and state, though there may be exceptions to such rules.

John Locke

LockeLockeanLocke, John
The concept of separating church and state is often credited to the writings of English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704).
Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State.

Toleration

tolerancereligious tolerancereligious toleration
In England, there is a constitutionally established state religion but other faiths are tolerated.
"Milton argued for disestablishment as the only effective way of achieving broad toleration. Rather than force a man's conscience, government should recognize the persuasive force of the gospel."

Sphere sovereignty

spheresdistinction of spheresruled in the secular sphere
In the West the issue of the separation of church and state during the medieval period centered on monarchs who ruled in the secular sphere but encroached on the Church's rule of the spiritual sphere.
Kuyper based the idea of sphere sovereignty partially on the Christian view of existence coram Deo, every part of human life exists equally and directly “before the face of God.” For Kuyper, this meant that sphere sovereignty involved a certain form of separation of church and state and a separation of state and other societal spheres, or anti-statism.

Constitution of Italy

Italian ConstitutionConstitutionConstitution of the Italian Republic
In Italy the principle of separation of church and state is enshrined in Article 7 of the Constitution, which states: "The State and the Catholic Church are independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere. Their relations are regulated by the Lateran pacts. Amendments to such Pacts which are accepted by both parties shall not require the procedure of constitutional amendments."
The State and the Catholic Church are recognised as independent and sovereign, each within its own sphere.

Two kingdoms doctrine

doctrine of the two kingdomsTwo KingdomsLutheranism
At the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther articulated a doctrine of the two kingdoms.
Separation of church and state

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
In English, the exact term is an offshoot of the phrase, "wall of separation between church and state", as written in Thomas Jefferson's letter to the Danbury Baptist Association in 1802.
He interpreted the First Amendment as having built "a wall of separation between Church and State."

Anabaptism

AnabaptistAnabaptistsanabaptisme
Those of the Radical Reformation (the Anabaptists) took Luther's ideas in new direction, most notably in the writings of Michael Sattler (1490–1527), who agreed with Luther that there were two kingdoms, but differed in arguing that these two kingdoms should be separate, and hence baptized believers should not vote, serve in public office or participate in any other way with the "kingdom of the world."
Separation of church and state

Shinto Directive

The Shinto Directive issued by the occupation government required that all state support for and involvement in any religious or Shinto institution or doctrine stop, including funding, coverage in textbooks, and official acts and ceremonies.
The purpose of the directive was ostensibly based in ideas of freedom of religion and separation of church and state.

Freedom of religion

religious freedomreligious libertyreligion
The philosophy of the separation of the church from the civil state parallels the philosophies of secularism, disestablishmentarianism, religious liberty, and religious pluralism, by way of which the European states assumed some of the social roles of the church, the welfare state, a social shift that produced a culturally secular population and public sphere. Freedom of religion in Croatia is a right defined by the Constitution, which also defines all religious communities as equal in front of the law and separated from the state.
Therefore, strict separation of church and state has to be kept.

Croatia

🇭🇷CroatianRepublic of Croatia
Freedom of religion in Croatia is a right defined by the Constitution, which also defines all religious communities as equal in front of the law and separated from the state.
Freedom of religion is a right defined by the Constitution which also defines all religious communities as equal before the law and separated from the state.

National church

Churchnationalethnic churches
The Kirk remains a national church to which the state has special obligations; it is conventional that the monarch, who is head of state, must attend the Church when she visits Scotland, and they swear in their accession oath to maintain and preserve the church.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, in a draft discussing the question of church and state around 1828 wrote that

Church of Ireland

AnglicanProtestantIrish Anglican
The Church of Ireland was disestablished as early as 1871; the Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920 (although certain border parishes remain part of the Established Church of England).
Despite its numerical minority, however, the Church of Ireland remained the official state church until the Irish Church Act 1869 disestablished it on 1 January 1871, under Queen Victoria and her Liberal government led by William Ewart Gladstone.

Baptists in the history of separation of church and state

Danbury Baptist Associationchurch and the state be kept separateDanbury Baptists
In English, the exact term is an offshoot of the phrase, "wall of separation between church and state", as written in Thomas Jefferson's letter to the Danbury Baptist Association in 1802.
Separation of church and state is one of the primary theological distinctions of the Baptist tradition.

Roger Williams

founderRoger WilliamRoger Williams,
The concept was implicit in the flight of Roger Williams from religious oppression in the Massachusetts Bay Colony to found the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations on the principle of state neutrality in matters of faith.
These three principles became central to his teachings and writings: separatism, liberty of conscience, and separation of church and state.