Fragment of a Septuagint: A column of uncial book from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus c. 325–350 CE, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton's Greek edition and English translation
Beginning of the Letter of Aristeas to Philocrates (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 11th century)
The inter-relationship between significant ancient Old Testament manuscripts (some identified by their siglum). LXX denotes the original Septuagint.

Earliest extant Greek translation of books from the Hebrew Bible.

- Septuagint

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Biblical canon

Set of texts which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as part of the Bible.

A scroll of the Book of Esther; one of the five megillot of the Tanakh.
The Abisha Scroll, the oldest scroll among the Samaritans in Nablus.
A manuscript page from P46, an early 3rd-century collection of Pauline epistles.
The contents page in a complete 80 book King James Bible, listing "The Books of the Old Testament", "The Books called Apocrypha", and "The Books of the New Testament".
The books of the Old Testament, showing their positions in both the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible, shown with their names in Hebrew) and Christian Bibles. The Deuterocanon shown in yellow and the Apocrypha shown in grey are not accepted by some major denominations; the Protocanon shown in red, orange, green, and blue are the Hebrew Bible books considered canonical by all major denominations.

The Greek Septuagint, which closely resembles the Hebrew Bible but includes additional texts, is the main textual source for the Christian Greek Old Testament.

Hebrew Bible

Canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah, the Nevi'im, and the Ketuvim.

Complete set of scrolls, constituting the Tanakh
The inter-relationship between various significant ancient manuscripts of the Old Testament (some identified by their siglum). Mt being the Masoretic text. The lowermost text "(lost)" would be the Urtext.

Catholic Bibles, Eastern / Greek Orthodox Bibles and Ethiopian Orthodox Bibles contain additional materials, derived from the Septuagint (texts translated into Koine Greek) and other sources.

Rabbinic Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism (יהדות רבנית), also called Rabbinism, Rabbinicism, or Judaism espoused by the Rabbanites, has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.

Talmud students
The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a.

During this time currents of Judaism were influenced by Hellenistic philosophy developed from the 3rd century BCE, notably among the Jewish diaspora in Alexandria, culminating in the compilation of the Septuagint.

Codex Sinaiticus

Book of Esther
Luke 11:2 in Codex Sinaiticus
A portion of Codex Sinaiticus, containing Esther.
John 7:52–8:12 without the pericope 7:53–8:11 in Sinaiticus
Page of the codex with text of Matthew 6:4–32
Additional phrase to John 21:6 on the margin – οι δε ειπον δι οληϲ τηϲ νυκτοϲ εκοπιαϲαμεν και ουδεν ελαβομεν επι δε τω ϲω ρηματι βαλουμεν
Page from facsimile edition (1862); 1 Chr 9:27–10:11
In the 6th or 7th century the codex may have been housed at Caesarea
Tischendorf in 1870
The codex was presented to Alexander II of Russia
Lithograph of Saint Catherine's Monastery, based on sketches made by Porphyrius Uspensky in 1857.
The Chapel of the Burning Bush in Saint Catherine's Monastery; a lithograph from the album of Porphyrius Uspensky
View of Saint Catherine's Monastery
A two-thirds portion of the codex was held in the National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg from 1859 until 1933
The British Library

The Codex Sinaiticus (Shelfmark: London, British Library, Add MS 43725), designated by siglum [Aleph] or 01 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering of New Testament manuscripts), δ 2 (in the von Soden numbering of New Testament manuscripts), or "Sinai Bible", is a fourth-century Christian manuscript of a Greek Bible, containing the majority of the Greek Old Testament, and the Greek New Testament written in uncial letters on parchment.

Codex Alexandrinus

The Codex Alexandrinus (London, British Library, Royal MS 1.

Folio 41v from the Codex Alexandrinus contains the end of the Gospel of Luke with the decorative tailpiece found at the end of each book
List of κεφάλαια to the Gospel of Mark
A vacant space proportionate to the break in the sense follows the end of a paragraph (page with text of Mark 6:27–54)
Colophon at the end Epistle of Jude. According to this colophon Acts of the Apostles follows General epistles
The end of the 2 Epistle of Peter and the beginning of the 1 Epistle of John in the same column
Text of Luke 12:54–13:4 in Codex Alexandrinus
Cyril Lucaris, one of the former owners of the codex
Fragment from Woide's facsimile edition (1786), containing text of John 1:1–7
The British Library in London

It contains the majority of the Greek Old Testament and the Greek New Testament.


Not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure of the past.

Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite

They are distinguished by Protestants from the deuterocanonical books (Catholic and Orthodox) or Apocrypha (Protestant), the books that appear in extant copies of the Septuagint in the fourth century or later and the Vulgate, but not in the Hebrew Bible or in Protestant Bibles.


Compilation of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, namely the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

Torah scroll at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne
Silver Torah case, Ottoman Empire, displayed in the Museum of Jewish Art and History
Reading of the Torah
One common formulation of the documentary hypothesis
The supplementary hypothesis, one potential successor to the documentary hypothesis
Presentation of The Torah, by Édouard Moyse, 1860, Museum of Jewish Art and History
Torahs in Ashkenazi Synagogue (Istanbul, Turkey)
Page pointers, or yad, for reading of the Torah
Open Torah case with scroll.

The Alexandrian Jews who translated the Septuagint used the Greek word nomos, meaning norm, standard, doctrine, and later "law".

New Testament

Second division of the Christian biblical canon.

Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel, by Rembrandt, 1661
Saint Paul Writing His Epistles by Valentin de Boulogne (c. 1618–1620). Most scholars think Paul actually dictated his letters to a secretary.
Papyrus Bodmer VIII, at the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, showing 1 and 2 Peter.
The Codex Regius (L or 019), an 8th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament with strong affinities to Codex Vaticanus.
The Rossano Gospels, 6th century, a representative of Byzantine text
The Rabbula Gospels, Eusebian Canons.
BL Add. MS 59874 with Ethiopic Gospel of Matthew.
A Byzantine lectionary, Codex Harleianus (l150), 995 AD, text of John 1:18.
Gaudenzio Ferrari's Stories of the Life and Passion of Christ, fresco, 1513, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Varallo Sesia, Italy. Depicting the life of Jesus

This use comes from the transcription of Latin testamentum 'will (left after death)', a literal translation of Greek diatheke (διαθήκη) 'will (left after death)', which is the word used to translate Hebrew brit in the Septuagint.

Book of Proverbs

Book in the third section (called Ketuvim) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.

Scroll of the Book of Proverbs
Papyrus Bodmer VI, featuring a Coptic translation of Proverbs (4th/5th century AD)
Solomon writing Proverbs (Gustave Doré)
Excerpt from Proverbs 3 displayed at Portland International Jetport in Portland, Maine
A page of the Book of Proverbs from a Bible from 1497

When translated into Greek and Latin, the title took on different forms: in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) it became Παροιμίαι (Paroimiai, "Proverbs"); in the Latin Vulgate the title was Proverbia, from which the English name is derived.

Hellenistic Judaism

Form of Judaism in classical antiquity that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.

Map of Alexander's empire, extending east and south of ancient Macedonia.
Mosaic floor of a Jewish Synagogue Aegina (300 CE).
Joshua. Fresco from Dura-Europos synagogue.

The major literary product of the contact of Second Temple Judaism and Hellenistic culture is the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koine Greek, specifically, Jewish Koine Greek.