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Eastern Herzegovinian dialect

Eastern HerzegovinianEastern Herzegovina
From the very beginning, there were slightly different literary Serbian and Croatian standards, although both were based on the same Shtokavian subdialect, Eastern Herzegovinian.
The Eastern Herzegovinian dialect (, Serbo-Croatian: istočnohercegovački/источнохерцеговачки or istočnohercegovačko-krajiški/источнохерцеговачко-крајишки) is the most widespread subdialect of the Shtokavian dialect of Serbo-Croatian, both by territory and the number of speakers.

Vienna Literary Agreement

Vienna agreementVienna Language Agreement
The process of linguistic standardization of Serbo-Croatian was originally initiated in the mid-19th-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established.
The Vienna Literary Agreement (Serbo-Croatian Latin: Bečki književni dogovor, Cyrillic: Бечки књижевни договор) was the result of a meeting held in March 1850, when writers from Croatia, Serbia, and one from Slovenia met to discuss the extent to which their literatures could be conjoined and united, and to standardize a Serbo-Croatian language.

Serbian language

SerbiansrSerbian:
Serbo-Croatian thus generally goes by the names Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac.
Serbian (српски / srpski, ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

Montenegrin language

MontenegrinMontenegrin Cyrilliclanguage
Serbo-Croatian thus generally goes by the names Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the normative variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Montenegrins and is the official language of Montenegro.

Serbo-Croatian phonology

Serbo-Croatianphonology
Like other South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian has a simple phonology, with the common five-vowel system and twenty-five consonants.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.

Croatian language

CroatianCroathr
Serbo-Croatian thus generally goes by the names Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac.
Croatian (hrvatski ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries.

Serbo-Croatian grammar

complicated case systemgrammargrammatical
Its grammar evolved from Common Slavic, with complex inflection, preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language that has, like most other Slavic languages, an extensive system of inflection.

Bosnian language

BosnianBosniakbos
Serbo-Croatian thus generally goes by the names Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански ) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.

Slovene language

SloveneSlovenianSlovenian language
Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area previously occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian (which further blend into Slovenian in the northwest).
Slovene is an Indo-European language belonging to the Western subgroup of the South Slavic branch of the Slavic languages, together with Serbo-Croatian.

Standard language

standardstandardizedstandard dialect
The process of linguistic standardization of Serbo-Croatian was originally initiated in the mid-19th-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, decades before a Yugoslav state was established. It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties.
In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties; examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese; whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
In the 20th century, Serbo-Croatian served as the official language of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (when it was called "Serbo-Croato-Slovenian"), and later as one of the official languages of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
On 19 May 1948, a correspondence by Mikhail A. Suslov informed Josip Broz Tito that the Communist Information Bureau, or Cominform (Informbiro in Serbo-Croatian), would be holding a session on 28 June 1948 in Bucharest almost completely dedicated to the "Yugoslav issue".

Phonemic orthography

phonetic spellingphonemicphonetic
It can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, and the orthography is highly phonemic in all standards.
A disputed example of an ideally phonemic orthography is the Serbo-Croatian language.

History of the Slavic languages

Common SlavicHistory of accentual developments in Slavic languagesOld Slavic
Its grammar evolved from Common Slavic, with complex inflection, preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns, pronouns, and adjectives.
By around 1000 AD, the area had broken up into separate East Slavic, West Slavic and South Slavic languages, and in the following centuries it broke up further into the various modern Slavic languages, of which the following are extant: Belarusian, Russian, Rusyn and Ukrainian in the East; Czech, Slovak, Polish, Kashubian and the Sorbian languages in the West, and Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian in the South.

Bosnian Cyrillic

BosančicaCyrillicbosančica/bosanica
The beginning of written Serbo-Croatian can be traced from the 10th century and on when Serbo-Croatian medieval texts were written in five scripts: Latin, Glagolitic, Early Cyrillic, Bosnian Cyrillic (bosančica/bosanica), and Arebica, the last principally by Bosniak nobility.
Its name in Serbo-Croatian is bosančica and bosanica the latter of which can be translated as Bosnian script.

Shtokavian

Shtokavian dialectIkavianŠtokavian
Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area previously occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian (which further blend into Slovenian in the northwest).
Shtokavian, Stokavian or Štokavian (štokavski / штокавски, ) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language and the basis of its Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin standards.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties.

Chakavian

Chakavian dialectČakavianČakavian dialect
Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread dialect in the western Balkans, intruding westwards into the area previously occupied by Chakavian and Kajkavian (which further blend into Slovenian in the northwest).
Chakavian, like Kajkavian, is not spoken in Serbo-Croatian-speaking regions beyond Croatia.

Serbian Cyrillic alphabet

Serbian CyrillicCyrillicSerbian
It can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, and the orthography is highly phonemic in all standards.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced ) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for Serbo-Croatian, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.

Gaj's Latin alphabet

Serbian LatinLatinCroatian alphabet
It can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gaj's Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, and the orthography is highly phonemic in all standards.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for writing Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties: Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin.

Language secessionism

Language secessionism in Serbo-Croatiansame dialectcommunicate fluently
The breakup of Yugoslavia affected language attitudes, so that social conceptions of the language separated on ethnic and political lines.
Serbo-Croatian has a strong structural unity, according to the vast majority of linguists who specialize in Slavic languages.

Dialect continuum

dialect clusterdialect chaincontinuum
South Slavic dialects historically formed a continuum.
Standard Slovene, Macedonian, and Bulgarian are each based on a distinct dialect, but the Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian standard varieties of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language are all based on the same dialect, Shtokavian.

Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia

AVNOJAnti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of YugoslaviaSecond Session of the AVNOJ
On January 15, 1944, the Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) declared Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, and Macedonian to be equal in the entire territory of Yugoslavia.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko vijeće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.

Bunjevac dialect

BunjevacBunjevac languageBunjevac speech
Serbo-Croatian thus generally goes by the names Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and sometimes Montenegrin and Bunjevac.
The status of the Bunjevac is vague, and it is considered a dialect of Serbo-Croatian by some linguists.

Charter of Ban Kulin

The Charter of Ban Kulin of 1189, written by Ban Kulin of Bosnia, was an early Shtokavian text, written in Bosnian Cyrillic.
The charter is written in two languages: Latin and an old form of Shtokavian dialect (Bosnian, Serbo-Croatian), with the Bosnian part being a loose translation of the Latin original.

Novi Sad Agreement

first conclusion
In 1954, major Serbian and Croatian writers, linguists and literary critics, backed by Matica srpska and Matica hrvatska signed the Novi Sad Agreement, which in its first conclusion stated: "Serbs, Croats and Montenegrins share a single language with two equal variants that have developed around Zagreb (western) and Belgrade (eastern)".
The Novi Sad Agreement (Novosadski dogovor, Новосадски договор) was a document composed by 25 Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian writers, linguists and intellectuals to build unity across the ethnic and linguistic divisions within Yugoslavia, and create the Serbo-Croatian language standard.