Server (computing)

serverserversserver computercomputer servernetwork serverserver softwareserver computerscomputer servershostnetwork servers
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".wikipedia
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Client (computing)

clientclientsclient software
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.

Web server

web serverswebserverHTTP server
Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.
A web server is server software, or hardware dedicated to running such software, that can satisfy World Wide Web client requests.

Application server

web application serverserverJava application server
Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.
An application server is a software framework that provides both facilities to create web applications and a server environment to run them.

Game server

serverserversdedicated servers
Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.
A game server (also sometimes referred to as a host) is a server which is the authoritative source of events in a multiplayer video game.

Host (network)

hosthostshost computer
In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969), one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host".
A host may work as a server offering information resources, services, and applications to users or other hosts on the network.

Push technology

push notificationspush notificationpush
Thereafter, the pub–sub server forwards matching messages to the clients without any further requests: the server pushes messages to the client, rather than the client pulling messages from the server as in request–response.
Push technology, or server push, is a style of Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server.

Client–server model

client–serverclient-serverclient/server
This architecture is called the client–server model, and a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices.
Client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
In computing, "server" dates at least to RFC 5 (1969), one of the earliest documents describing ARPANET (the predecessor of Internet), and is contrasted with "user", distinguishing two types of host: "server-host" and "user-host".
By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 0.9, the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the first Web browser (which was also a HTML editor and could access Usenet newsgroups and FTP files), the first HTTP server software (later known as CERN httpd), the first web server, and the first Web pages that described the project itself.

Directory service

directorydirectory servername service
A directory server or name server is a server which provides such a service.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers, mainframe computers and servers.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
This is in contrast with peer-to-peer model in which the relationship is on-demand reciprocation.
Basically when a server experiences an increase in load it redirects incoming peers to other peers who have agreed to mirror the content, thus off-loading balance from the server.

Database

database management systemdatabasesDBMS
Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software.

Fax server

computer-based facsimile systemsfax gatewaysintegrated fax program
Alternatively the term fax server is sometimes used to describe a program that enables a computer to send and receive fax messages, set of software running on a server computer which is equipped with one or more fax-capable modems (or dedicated fax boards) attached to telephone lines or, more recently, software modem emulators which use T.38 ("Fax over IP") technology to transmit the signal over an IP network.

Email

e-mailelectronic maile-mails
Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages.

Media server

media serversaudio storagemedia hosting
A media server refers either to a dedicated computer appliance or to a specialized application software, ranging from an enterprise class machine providing video on demand, to, more commonly, a small personal computer or NAS (Network Attached Storage) for the home, dedicated for storing various digital media (meaning digital videos/movies, audio/music, and picture files).

Proxy server

proxyproxiesproxy servers
In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
This often implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard personal computers, but alternatively, large computing clusters may be composed of many relatively simple, replaceable server components.
About 81.5% of personal computers shipped had been desktop computers, 16.4% laptops and 2.1% servers.

World Wide Web

WebWWWthe web
A Web server is server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can satisfy World Wide Web client requests.

Out-of-band management

out-of-bandLights out managementLights-out management
Remote management can be conducted via various methods including Microsoft Management Console (MMC), PowerShell, SSH and browser-based out-of-band management systems such as Dell's iDRAC or HP's iLo.
It allows a system administrator to monitor and manage servers and other network-attached equipment by remote control regardless of whether the machine is powered on, or whether an operating system is installed or functional.

Hard disk drive

hard drivehard diskhard drives
Servers typically include hardware redundancy such as dual power supplies, RAID disk systems, and ECC memory, along with extensive pre-boot memory testing and verification.
HDDs maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers, though personal computing devices produced in large volume, like cell phones and tablets, rely on flash products.

19-inch rack

rackrack-mountrack-mounted
Server casings are usually flat and wide, and designed to be rack-mounted.
Common uses include computer servers, telecommunications equipment and networking hardware, audiovisual production and scientific equipment.

Preboot Execution Environment

PXEPXE BootIntel Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)
Servers typically include hardware redundancy such as dual power supplies, RAID disk systems, and ECC memory, along with extensive pre-boot memory testing and verification.
Since the beginning of computer networks, there has been a persistent need for client systems which can boot appropriate software images, with appropriate configuration parameters, both retrieved at boot time from one or more network servers.

Linux

GNU/LinuxLinux on the desktopLin
On the Internet the dominant operating systems among servers are UNIX-like open-source distributions, such as those based on Linux and FreeBSD, with Windows Server also having a significant share.
Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, or include a solution stack such as LAMP.

Windows Server

Microsoft Windows ServerServerWindows Storage Server 2003
On the Internet the dominant operating systems among servers are UNIX-like open-source distributions, such as those based on Linux and FreeBSD, with Windows Server also having a significant share.
Windows Server is a brand name for a group of server operating systems released by Microsoft.

Hot swapping

hot-swappablehot swaphotplug
Critical components might be hot swappable, allowing technicians to replace them on the running server without shutting it down, and to guard against overheating, servers might have more powerful fans or use water cooling.
It may simply be for convenience of avoiding the delay and nuisance of shutting down and then restarting complex equipment or because it is essential for equipment, such as a server, to be continuously active.