A report on Seven Years' War

Clockwise from top left:The Battle of Plassey (23 June 1757)

The Battle of Carillon (6–8 July 1758)

The Battle of Zorndorf (25 August 1758)

The Battle of Kunersdorf (12 August 1759)
Map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War (1754 to 1763), which was part of the Seven Years' War
Europe in the years after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748
Prussian Leibgarde battalion at Kolín, 1757
British raid on French settlement of Miramichi (later called Burnt Church, New Brunswick), 1758
Battle of Lobositz. Austria: blue; Prussia: red
The Battle of Kolín in 1757 in Bohemia (the site is now in the Czech Republic)
The Battle of Rossbach in Saxony
The Battle of Leuthen in Silesia, by Carl Röchling
Frederick the Great and staff at Leuthen
The Battle of Krefeld in Prussia – a map of the area in The Gentleman's Magazine
The Battle of Hochkirch in Saxony
The Battle of Maxen in Saxony
The Battle of Kunersdorf in Prussia
Battle of Quiberon Bay off Brittany
Battle of Liegnitz (1760) in what is now Poland
Operations of Russian army on Polish–Lithuanian territory, 1756–1763
Siege of Kolberg (1761)
Treaty of Hubertusburg
Under William Pitt the Elder's leadership, Britain's position as the leading colonial power was confirmed by the Seven Years' War.
The Death of General Wolfe (1771), on the Plains of Abraham, near Quebec
The bombardment of Morro Castle on Havana, 1763
The Mughal ambassador to France
August 2009 historical re-enactment of the Battle of Warburg fought on 31 July 1760
Map showing British territorial gains in North America following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow
All the participants of the Seven Years' War
Great Britain, Prussia, Portugal, with allies
France, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden with allies
Battle of Quiberon Bay off Brittany
French and British positions during the first four years of the war
British territory, forts and settlements
French territory, forts and settlements
The bombardment of Morro Castle on Havana, 1763

Global conflict between Great Britain and France for global pre-eminence.

- Seven Years' War
Clockwise from top left:The Battle of Plassey (23 June 1757)

The Battle of Carillon (6–8 July 1758)

The Battle of Zorndorf (25 August 1758)

The Battle of Kunersdorf (12 August 1759)

240 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The war theater

French and Indian War

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The war theater
Belligerents during the Seven Years' War. Canadians and Europeans view the French and Indian War as a theater of the Seven Years' War, while Americans view it a separate conflict.
The coureurs des bois were French Canadian fur traders, who did business with natives throughout the Mississippi and St. Lawrence watershed.
Map of Iroquois expansion, 1711. By the mid-18th century, the Iroquois Confederacy had expanded from Upstate New York to the Ohio Country.
The Cherokee, c. 1762. The Cherokee were subject to diplomatic efforts from the British and French in order to gain their support or neutrality in the event of a conflict.
Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, the Governor of New France sent an expedition in 1749 into the Ohio Country in an attempt to assert French sovereignty.
Map of European colonies in North America, c. 1750. Disputes over territorial claims persisted after the end of King George's War in 1748.
Fort Le Boeuf in 1754. In the spring of 1753, the French began to build a series of forts in the Ohio Country.
In 1754, George Washington, of the Virginia Regiment, was dispatched to warn the French to leave Virginian territory.
Washington with his war council during the Battle of Fort Necessity. After deliberations, it was decided to withdraw, and surrender the fort.
In June 1755, the British captured French naval ships sent to provide war matériel to the Acadian and Mi'kmaw militias in Nova Scotia.
British forces under fire from the French and Indian forces at Monongahela, when the Braddock expedition failed to take Fort Duquesne.
British raid on the Acadian settlement of Grimross. Efforts to undermine the French Fortress of Louisbourg resulted in the forcible removal of the Acadians.
In January 1756, John Campbell was named as the new British Commander-in-Chief, North America.
In August 1756, French soldiers and native warriors led by Louis-Joseph de Montcalm successfully attacked Fort Oswego.
Montcalm attempts to stop native warriors from attacking the British. A number of British soldiers were killed after the Siege of Fort William Henry.
British forces besieging the Fortress of Louisbourg. The French fortress fell in July 1758 after a 48-day siege.
A British expedition sent to invade Canada was repulsed by the French at the Battle of Carillon in July 1758.
After a three-month siege of Quebec City, British forces captured the city at the Plains of Abraham.
French authorities surrendering Montreal to British forces in 1760.
The resulting peace dramatically changed the political landscape of North America, with New France ceded to the British and the Spanish.
A copy of the Quebec Act passed in 1774 which addressed a number of grievances held by French Canadians and Indians, although it angered American colonists

The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War, which pitted the North American colonies of the British Empire against those of the French, each side being supported by various Native American tribes.

The Battle of Fontenoy by Pierre L'Enfant. Oil on canvas.

War of the Austrian Succession

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European conflict that took place between 1740 and 1748 and was fought primarily in Central Europe, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

European conflict that took place between 1740 and 1748 and was fought primarily in Central Europe, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, the Atlantic and Mediterranean.

The Battle of Fontenoy by Pierre L'Enfant. Oil on canvas.
Maria Theresa, Queen regnant of Hungary and Bohemia and Archduchess of Austria, Holy Roman Empress
Europe after the Treaty of Vienna (1738), Habsburg Monarchy in gold
Lands of the Bohemian Crown; in 1742, most of Silesia was ceded to Prussia
Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia, who entered the war by the September Treaty of Worms
Louis XV of France by Maurice Quentin de La Tour
Frederick the Great, by Wilhelm Camphausen; his position at the end of 1744 was extremely precarious
Maria Theresa's husband, Francis I, elected Holy Roman Emperor on 13 September 1745
Victory at Fontenoy in May 1745 re-established French confidence
Philip V of Spain's family by Louis-Michel van Loo
Charles III of Spain by Anton Raphael Mengs
The Prince of Conti by Alexis Simon Belle
The Genoese charge during the Battle of Bassignano in 1745
Infante Philip of Spain by Laurent Pécheux
Map of the Low Countries; Bergen op Zoom, upper center
Europe in the years after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748
Flag of the East India Company (founded in 1600)
British Admiral Edward Boscawen besieged Pondicherry in the later months of 1748.
Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon
The Franco-Spanish fleet commanded by Don Juan José Navarro drove off the British fleet under Thomas Mathews near Toulon in 1744.
The Prussian infantry during the Battle of Mollwitz, 1741
King George II at the Battle of Dettingen, 1743
The Duke of Lorraine and Imperial troops crossing the Rhine before Strasbourg, 1744
View of the British landing on the island of Cape Breton to attack the fortress of Louisbourg, 1745
The British fleet bombarding the Corsican port of Bastia in 1745
The Battle of Fontenoy, 11 May 1745
Colonels of the French Guards and British guards politely discussing who should fire first at the battle of Fontenoy, 1745
The Battle of Rocoux in 1746, between the French and the British, Dutch and Austrians
The Battle of Cape Finisterre, 1747
Marshal Maurice de Saxe at the Battle of Lauffeld, 1747
Taking and looting of the fortress of Bergen-op-Zoom in 1747

These changes set the scene for the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in 1756.

Prussian grenadiers advancing at the Battle of Leuthen, as depicted by Carl Röchling

Third Silesian War

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War between Prussia and Austria (together with its allies) that lasted from 1756 to 1763 and confirmed Prussia's control of the region of Silesia (now in south-western Poland).

War between Prussia and Austria (together with its allies) that lasted from 1756 to 1763 and confirmed Prussia's control of the region of Silesia (now in south-western Poland).

Prussian grenadiers advancing at the Battle of Leuthen, as depicted by Carl Röchling
Europe in the years after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), with Brandenburg–Prussia in violet and the Habsburg monarchy in gold
Map of the Central European region, prior to Prussia's seizure of Silesia, where the bulk of the war was fought
The Central European borders of Brandenburg–Prussia (blue-green) and the Habsburg monarchy (red) in 1756, at the outbreak of the Third Silesian War
Prussian Field Marshal Kurt von Schwerin dying of wounds at the Battle of Prague, as depicted by Johann Christoph Frisch
The Battle of Rossbach, where a portion of Prussia's army destroyed the united French and Imperial armies in a 90-minute battle
Prussian grenadiers storming the parish church during the Battle of Leuthen, as depicted by Carl Röchling
Austrian General Ernst von Laudon surveying the field at the Battle of Kunersdorf, where his army combined with Russian forces to defeat Frederick's Prussians, as depicted by Siegmund l'Allemand
Russian and Austrian troops plundering Berlin in October 1760, as depicted by Alexander von Kotzebue
Defeated Prussians withdrawing as Russians take control of Kolberg, as depicted by Alexander von Kotzebue
Prussian and Austrian lines facing off at the Battle of Freiberg
Contemporary engraving celebrating the restoration of peace in Germany, by Johannes Esaias Nilson

The war was fought mainly in Silesia, Bohemia and Upper Saxony and formed one theatre of the Seven Years' War.

Portrait by Johann Georg Ziesenis, c. 1763

Frederick the Great

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King in Prussia from 1740 until 1772, and King of Prussia from 1772 until his death in 1786.

King in Prussia from 1740 until 1772, and King of Prussia from 1772 until his death in 1786.

Portrait by Johann Georg Ziesenis, c. 1763
24-year-old Frederick, Crown Prince of Prussia, painting by Antoine Pesne, 1736
Frederick's marriage to Elisabeth Christine on 12 June 1733 at Schloss Salzdahlum
Rheinsberg Palace, Frederick's residence from 1736 to 1740
Europe at the time when Frederick came to the throne in 1740, with Brandenburg–Prussia in violet.
Europe at the time of Frederick's death in 1786, with Brandenburg–Prussia in violet, shows that Prussia's territory has been greatly extended by his Silesian Wars, his inheritance of East Frisia and the First Partition of Poland.
Battle of Hohenfriedberg, Attack of the Prussian Infantry, by Carl Röchling
Battle of Rossbach, a tactical victory for Frederick
Frederick leading his troops at the Battle of Zorndorf, by Carl Röchling
Frederick and his soldiers after the Battle of Hochkirch in 1758, by Carl Röchling
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition (1772)
King Frederick II, by Anna Dorothea Therbusch, 1772
Portrait by Wilhelm Camphausen, 1870
St. Hedwig's Cathedral, the first Roman Catholic church built in Berlin since the Reformation, was erected by the sanction of Frederick, who also sketched its design.
Frederick the Great inspects the potato harvest outside Neustettin (now Szczecinek, Poland), Eastern Pomerania
The Flute Concert of Sanssouci by Adolph Menzel, 1852, depicts Frederick playing the flute in his music room at Sanssouci as C. P. E. Bach accompanies him on a fortepiano by Gottfried Silbermann
Frederick the Great by Anton Graff, 1781
South, or garden façade and corps de logis of Sanssouci
The Round Table of King Frederick II in Sanssouci by Adolph Menzel with Voltaire, Algoretti, La Mettrie, the Keith brothers and Marquis d'Argens. Frederick is seated at the center, facing Voltaire (in the purple coat, leaning forward).
Frederick the Great and his staff at the Battle of Leuthen, by Hugo Ungewitter
Frederick in a Waffenrock (army tunic)
Frederick before the Battle of Torgau, 1760
Grave of Frederick at Sanssouci with potatoes, where he was buried only after the German reunification. (He wished to rest next to his dogs, but this was originally ignored.)
Frederick quoted by the Nazi propaganda poster Wochenspruch der NSDAP on 24 August 1941. Translation: "Now we have to think of leading the war in a way that we spoil the desire of the enemies to break the peace once again."

His invasion triggered the Third Silesian War and the larger Seven Years' War, both of which lasted until 1763.

Pitt the Elder, after Richard Brompton

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham

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British statesman of the Whig group who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1766 to 1768.

British statesman of the Whig group who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1766 to 1768.

Pitt the Elder, after Richard Brompton
Governor Thomas "Diamond" Pitt
Lord Cobham, Pitt's commanding officer and political mentor. Pitt was part of a group of young MPs known as Cobham's Cubs.
The huge monument to William Pitt the Elder, in the Guildhall, London stands opposite an equally huge monument to his son, William Pitt the Younger in a balanced composition
George II leading his forces to victory at the Battle of Dettingen (1743). Pitt incurred his lasting displeasure by attacking British support for Hanover, which would blight their relations for twenty years.
William Pitt the Elder, by Joseph Wilton, National Portrait Gallery, London
"We must declare war on France". This curious representation of William Pitt making a speech to Parliament wants to show his absolute opposition to France on colonial problems.
Pitt's longstanding rival Henry Fox.
Pitt the Elder, by William Hoare
The Duke of Newcastle with whom Pitt formed an unlikely political partnership from 1757
James Wolfe's victory at the Battle of Quebec in 1759
New borders drawn by the Royal Proclamation of 1763
Robert Clive's victory at the Battle of Plassey established the East India Company as a military as well as a commercial power.
Lord Bute's rise to power between 1760 and 1762 dramatically influenced the emphasis of Britain's war effort. Like the new king, Bute favoured an end to British involvement on the continent.
Coat of arms of William Pitt.
Arms of William Pitt. Note that his arms form the basis for those of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and the University of Pittsburgh.
The Death of the Earl of Chatham in the House of Lords, 7 April 1778. Painting by John Singleton Copley, 1779–80. (In fact he died 34 days after the seizure depicted.)
William Pitt the Younger was to become Prime Minister at a young age and lead Britain for more than twenty years.

Pitt was a member of the British cabinet and its informal leader from 1756 to 1761 (with a brief interlude in 1757), during the Seven Years' War (including the French and Indian War in the American colonies).

New France

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The area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris.

The area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris.

Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
A map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612
Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
Champlain's Habitation c. 1608
A map of western New France, including the Illinois Country, by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688
The Merchant Flag of France (1689 design), inspiration for the flag of Quebec
One group of King's Daughters arrives at Quebec, 1667
Political map of the northeastern part of North America in 1664
French comfort women transported to Louisiana as brides for the colonists
Jean Talon, count of Orsainville, first intendant of New France.
Card money in New France had the same currency value in the colony as minted currency. c.1714
Company of New France building in present day Quebec City
The arrival of Radisson in an Amerindian camp in 1660
Map showing the approximate location of major tribes and settlements
1681 French map of the New World above the equator: New France and the Great Lakes in the north, with a dark line as the Mississippi River to the west in the Illinois Country and the mouth of the river (and future New Orleans) then terra incognita
Map of Canada (New France) in 1703, showing full length of Mississippi River
Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, Gabriel Sagard, 1632
Governor Frontenac performing a tribal dance with indigenous allies
Engraving depicting Adam Dollard with a keg of gunpowder above his head, during the Battle of Long Sault
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
An 1850s depiction of the death of the French Jesuit priest Sébastien Rale during Father Rale's War
Map of territorial claims in North America by 1750, before the French and Indian War, which was part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange, California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated)
Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow
A chart showing the political organization of New France, c. 1759

After the Seven Years' War (which included the French and Indian War in America), France ceded the rest of New France to Great Britain and Spain in the Treaty of Paris (1763) (except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon).

The combatants of the Seven Years' War as shown before the outbreak of war in the mid-1750s.

Treaty of Paris (1763)

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The combatants of the Seven Years' War as shown before the outbreak of war in the mid-1750s.
"A new map of North America" – produced following the Treaty of Paris
Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink and Spanish territorial gains after the consummation of the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow

The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain and Prussia's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1759

Maria Theresa

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Ruler of the Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position in her own right.

Ruler of the Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position in her own right.

Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1759
Painting of three-year-old Maria Theresa in the gardens of Hofburg Palace
Archduchess Maria Theresa, by Andreas Möller
Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen at their wedding breakfast, by Martin van Meytens. Charles VI (in the red-plumed hat) is seated at the center of the table.
Maria Theresa's procession through the Graben, 22 November 1740. The pregnant queen is on way to hear High Mass at St. Stephen's Cathedral before receiving homage.
Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary, St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg
Maria Theresa as the Queen of Hungary
Engraved by Gustav Adolph Müller after Martin van Mytens, the Younger, Maria Theresa of Austria, 1742, engraving
The Battle of Kolín, 1757
Maria Theresa with her family, 1754, by Martin van Meytens
Mural by Franz Anton Maulbertsch in the Hofburg, Innsbruck, commissioned by Maria Theresa in remembrance of her daughters who died in childhood: Maria Johanna (1750–1762), Maria Elisabeth (1737–1740), Maria Carolina (1740–1741) and Maria Carolina (1748–1748)
The dowager empress with family, 1776, by Heinrich Füger
Maria Theresa and her family celebrating Saint Nicholas, by Archduchess Maria Christina, in 1762
Joseph, Maria Theresa's eldest son and co-ruler, in 1775, by Anton von Maron
Confirmation of Serbian Privileges, issued by Maria Theresa in 1743
Maria Theresa in 1762, by Jean-Étienne Liotard
Maria Theresa depicted on her Thaler
Maria Theresa as a widow in 1773, by Anton von Maron. Peace holds the olive crown above her head, reaffirming Maria Theresa's monarchical status. This was the last commissioned state portrait of Maria Theresa.
Maria Theresa and her husband are interred in the double tomb which she had inscribed as a widow.
Oath of allegiance ceremony of cabinet II of Austrian chancellor Sebastian Kurz in the Maria Theresa Room of the Hofburg palace (2020)
Hungarian President László Sólyom with U.S. President George W. Bush in the Maria Theresa Room of Sándor Palace (2006)

Maria Theresa later unsuccessfully tried to recover Silesia during the Seven Years' War.

Kingdom of Great Britain

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Sovereign country in Western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 1 January 1801.

Sovereign country in Western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 1 January 1801.

Location of Great Britain in 1789 in dark green; Ireland, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and Hanover in light green
Queen Anne, who reigned from 1702 to 1714
Location of Great Britain in 1789 in dark green; Ireland, the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man and Hanover in light green
Walpole, by Arthur Pond
Walpole's Houghton Hall
1740 political cartoon depicting a towering Walpole as the Colossus of Rhodes.
Lord Clive of the East India Company meeting his ally Mir Jafar after their decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757
Pitt addressing the Commons in 1793

Victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, which was to become the foremost global power for over a century.

The alliances formed as a result of the Diplomatic Revolution.

Diplomatic Revolution

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The alliances formed as a result of the Diplomatic Revolution.

The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 was the reversal of longstanding alliances in Europe between the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War.