Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Seventeenth Amendment17th Amendmentdirect election of Senators17th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionSeventeenthSeventeenth Amendments17th Amendment to the Constitution17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution1913direct election of U.S. Senators
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States senators by the people of the states.wikipedia
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Article One of the United States Constitution

Article IArticle OneU.S. Const. art. I
The amendment supersedes Article I, §3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, under which senators were elected by state legislatures.
Section 3 originally required that the state legislatures elect the members of the Senate, but the Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, provides for the direct election of senators.

United States Senate

U.S. SenatorUnited States SenatorU.S. Senate
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States senators by the people of the states.
From 1789 to 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states they represented; they are now elected by popular vote, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913.

62nd United States Congress

Sixty-second62nd62nd Congress
The amendment was proposed by the 62nd Congress in 1912 and became part of the Constitution on April 8, 1913 on ratification by three-fourths (36) of the state legislatures.

1913 United States Senate special election in Georgia

GeorgiaRe-elected July 15, 1913special state election
The transition began with two special elections in 1913 - the first in Georgia and second in Maryland.
The first election under the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was held July 15, 1913.

People's Party (United States)

PopulistPopulist PartyPeople's Party
On the first front, the Populist Party incorporated the direct election of senators into its Omaha Platform, adopted in 1892.
Other Populist-endorsed measures included bimetallism, a graduated income tax, direct election of Senators, a shorter workweek, and the establishment of a postal savings system.

List of Oregon ballot measures

Ballot measuresOregon Ballot Measurestatewide ballot measures
In 1908, Oregon passed the first law that based the selection of U.S. senators on a popular vote.

William A. Clark

William Andrews ClarkWilliam ClarkSenator Clark
In 1900, for example, William A. Clark had his election voided after the Senate concluded that he had bought votes in the Montana legislature.
The corruption of his election contributed to the passage of the 17th Amendment.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States senators by the people of the states.
The Seventeenth Amendment (1913) modifies the way senators are elected.

State legislature (United States)

state legislaturestate legislaturesstate legislator
The amendment supersedes Article I, §3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, under which senators were elected by state legislatures.
Formerly, state legislatures appointed the U.S. Senators from their respective states until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 required the direct election of Senators by the state's voters.

Convention to propose amendments to the United States Constitution

constitutional conventionArticle V Conventionnational convention
Twenty-seven states had called for a constitutional convention on the subject, with 31 states needed to reach the threshold; Arizona and New Mexico each achieved statehood that year (bringing the total number of states to 48), and were expected to support the motion.
At least four other amendments (the Seventeenth, Twenty-First, Twenty-Second, and Twenty-Fifth Amendments) have been identified as being proposed by Congress at least partly in response to the threat of an Article V convention, bringing the total to 15 out of 27, a majority of the Amendments.

List of special elections to the United States Senate

special electiona special electionSenate special elections
Prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913, most state legislatures elected senators, as well as replacement senators.

1914 United States Senate elections

1914Re-elected in 1914re-elected
The transition then began in earnest with the November 1914 election, and was complete on 4 March 1919 when the senators chosen at the November 1918 election took office.
The United States Senate elections of 1914, with the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, were the first time that all seats up for election were popularly elected instead of chosen by their state legislatures.

Classes of United States senators

Senate class numbersclass 2class 1
Upon the expiration of a senator's term of any length, someone starts a new six-year term as senator (based on election by the state legislatures until the Seventeenth Amendment required direct popular election of senators).

1918 United States Senate elections

1918electedre-elected
The transition then began in earnest with the November 1914 election, and was complete on 4 March 1919 when the senators chosen at the November 1918 election took office.
It was the first election in which all Class 2 senators were subject to direct or popular election following the enactment of the Seventeenth Amendment, making them the final class under the old system.

Joseph L. Bristow

Joseph BristowJoseph Little Bristow
When the resolution came before the Senate, a substitute resolution, one without the rider, was proposed by Joseph L. Bristow of Kansas.
As a Senator, Bristow fought fiercely for direct election of Senators, which, until the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1912, were elected by (or appointed by processes established by) state legislatures.

Trinsey v. Pennsylvania

In Trinsey v. Pennsylvania (1991), the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit was faced with a situation where, following the death of Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania, Governor Bob Casey had provided for a replacement and for a special election that did not include a primary.
1991), was a case decided by the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit that confirmed the validity of special elections held without a primary under the Fourteenth and Seventeenth Amendments to the United States Constitution.

Tea Party movement

Tea PartyTea PartiersTea Party activist
The Tea Party movement argued for repealing the Seventeenth Amendment entirely, claiming that it would protect states' rights and reduce the power of the federal government.
Two constitutional amendments have been targeted by some in the movement for full or partial repeal: the 16th that allows an income tax, and the 17th that requires popular election of senators.

1913 United States Senate special election in Maryland

elected1913 (Special)1913 special election
The transition began with two special elections in 1913 - the first in Georgia and second in Maryland.
The election was the second Senate election (after an April 1913 election in Georgia) held under the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which required direct election of senators.

Apportionment (politics)

reapportionmentmalapportionmentapportionment
Before the Supreme Court required "one man, one vote" in Reynolds v. Sims (1964), malapportionment of state legislatures was common.
The 17th Amendment, ratified in 1913, provided for direct election of U.S. Senators.

Robert Latham Owen

Robert L. OwenRobert OwenOwen
In 1912, Oklahoma reelected Robert Owen by advisory popular vote.
He made repeated attempts, starting in 1907, to propose a constitutional amendment providing for the direct public election of U.S. Senators, in place of election by state legislatures, until the Senate passed the Seventeenth Amendment to this effect in 1911.

States' rights

states rightsstate's rightsstate sovereignty
The Tea Party movement argued for repealing the Seventeenth Amendment entirely, claiming that it would protect states' rights and reduce the power of the federal government.
States' rights were affected by the fundamental alteration of the federal government resulting from the Seventeenth Amendment, depriving state governments of an avenue of control over the federal government via the representation of each state's legislature in the U.S. Senate.

By-election

special electionparliamentary by-electionby-elections
It also alters the procedure for filling vacancies in the Senate, allowing for state legislatures to permit their governors to make temporary appointments until a special election can be held.

Connecticut Compromise

Great Compromisecompromise on representationConnecticut Compromise (USA)
Each state, regardless of size, is entitled to two senators as part of the Connecticut Compromise between the small and large states.

United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeU.S. House of RepresentativesUnited States Representative
This contrasted with the House of Representatives, a body elected by popular vote, and was described as an uncontroversial decision; at the time, James Wilson was the sole advocate of popularly electing the Senate, but his proposal was defeated 10–1.

James Wilson

Fort Wilson RiotWilson
This contrasted with the House of Representatives, a body elected by popular vote, and was described as an uncontroversial decision; at the time, James Wilson was the sole advocate of popularly electing the Senate, but his proposal was defeated 10–1.