Seventh Crusade

SeventhCrusade7th Crusade1251A new crusadecrusade of Louis IXcrusadesin 1250King's crusade against EgyptLouis IX's Crusade
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.wikipedia
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Louis IX of France

Louis IXSaint LouisKing Louis IX
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
Following a vow he made after a serious illness and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades.

Baibars

Baybarsal-Zahir BaybarsBaibars al-Bunduqdari
Louis' troops were defeated by the Egyptian army led by Fakhr al-Din ibn Shaykh al-Shuyukh, whose army was supported by the Bahriyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz, Aybak and Qalawun.
He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France.

Qutuz

Saif ad-Din Qutuzal-Muzafar Seif al-Din QutuzKutuz
Louis' troops were defeated by the Egyptian army led by Fakhr al-Din ibn Shaykh al-Shuyukh, whose army was supported by the Bahriyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz, Aybak and Qalawun.
He was prominent in defeating the Seventh Crusade, which invaded Egypt in 1249–50.

First Council of Lyon

Council of LyonFirst Council of Lyons13th General (Ecumenical) Council
Frederick had captured and imprisoned clerics on their way to the First Council of Lyon, and in 1245 he was formally deposed by Innocent IV.
The council also directed a new crusade (the Seventh Crusade), under the command of Louis IX of France, to reconquer the Holy Land.

Aigues-Mortes

Aigues MortesTower of ConstanceAguamorta
For the next three years Louis collected an ecclesiastical tenth (mostly from church tithes), and in 1248 he and his approximately 15,000-strong army that included 3,000 knights, and 5,000 crossbowmen sailed on 36 ships from the ports of Aigues-Mortes, which had been specifically built to prepare for the crusade, and Marseille.
This was the city from which Louis IX twice departed for the Crusades: the Seventh Crusade in 1248 and again for the Eighth Crusade in 1270 for Tunis where he died of dysentery.

Khwarazmian dynasty

Khwarezmid EmpireKhwarezmian EmpireKhwarazmian
In 1244, the Khwarezmians, recently displaced by the advance of the Mongols, took Jerusalem on their way to ally with the Egyptian Mamluks.
This triggered a call from Europe for the Seventh Crusade, but the Crusaders would never again be successful in retaking Jerusalem.

Siege of Jerusalem (1244)

sacked Jerusalemcapture of Jerusalemcaptured Jerusalem
This returned Jerusalem to Muslim control, but the fall of Jerusalem was no longer a crucial event to European Christians, who had seen the city pass from Christian to Muslim control numerous times in the past two centuries.
The Seventh Crusade (1248-1254) under Louis IX of France was motivated by this massacre, but it accomplished little except to play a part in the process of replacement of the Ayyubid sultans with the more powerful Mamluks, who were the Crusaders' main opponents from 1255.

Battle of Fariskur

as he retreatedbattle at FariskurFariskur
In March 1250 Louis finally tried to return to Damietta, but he was taken captive at the Battle of Fariskur, where his army was annihilated.
The Battle of Fariskur was the last major battle of the Seventh Crusade.

Mansoura, Egypt

MansouraEl MansouraAl Mansurah
A force led by Robert of Artois, alongside the Templars and the English contingent led by William Longespée, attacked the Egyptian camp at Gideila and advanced to Al Mansurah where they were defeated at the Battle of Al Mansurah.
The city is named after the Egyptian victory at the El Mansoura Battle over Louis IX of France during the Seventh Crusade.

Alphonse, Count of Poitiers

AlphonseAlfonsoAlphonse de Poitiers
Poitou was ruled by Louis IX's brother Alphonse of Poitiers, who joined him on his crusade in 1245.
Alphonse took part in two crusades with his brother, St Louis, in 1248 (the Seventh Crusade) and in 1270 (the Eighth Crusade).

Damietta

TamiathisDamietteNew Damietta
Nonetheless, Egypt was the object of his crusade, and he landed in 1249 at Damietta on the Nile.
Damietta was also the object of the Seventh Crusade, led by Louis IX of France.

Battle of Al Mansurah

Battle of MansurahBattle of al-MansurahAl Mansurah
A force led by Robert of Artois, alongside the Templars and the English contingent led by William Longespée, attacked the Egyptian camp at Gideila and advanced to Al Mansurah where they were defeated at the Battle of Al Mansurah.
In 1245, during the First Council of Lyon, Pope Innocent IV gave his full support to the Seventh Crusade being prepared by Louis IX, King of France.

Mamluk

MamluksMamelukesMameluke
Louis' troops were defeated by the Egyptian army led by Fakhr al-Din ibn Shaykh al-Shuyukh, whose army was supported by the Bahriyya Mamluks led by Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz, Aybak and Qalawun. In 1244, the Khwarezmians, recently displaced by the advance of the Mongols, took Jerusalem on their way to ally with the Egyptian Mamluks.
In June 1249, the Seventh Crusade under Louis IX of France landed in Egypt and took Damietta.

Henry III of England

Henry IIIKing Henry IIIKing Henry III of England
Henry III of England was still struggling with Simon de Montfort and other problems in England. In a slightly later poem, D'un sirventes m'es gran voluntatz preza, Bernart de Rovenac attacks both James I of Aragon and Henry III of England for neglecting to defend "their fiefs" that the rei que conquer Suria ("king who conquered Syria") had possessed.
Crusading was a popular cause in the 13th century, and in 1248 Louis joined the ill-fated Seventh Crusade, having first made a fresh truce with England and received assurances from the Pope that he would protect his lands against any attack by Henry.

Jean de Joinville

JoinvilleJohn of JoinvilleJoinville, Jean de
The history of the Seventh Crusade was written by Jean de Joinville, who was also a participant, Matthew Paris and many Muslim historians.
He is most famous for writing the Life of Saint Louis, a biography of Louis IX of France that chronicled the Seventh Crusade.

Charles I of Anjou

Charles of AnjouCharles I of NaplesCharles I of Sicily
Another brother, Charles I of Anjou, also joined Louis.
He accompanied Louis during the Seventh Crusade to Egypt.

Eighth Crusade

crusadeEightha new crusade
In 1270 he attempted another crusade, though it too would end in failure.
Despite the failure of the Seventh Crusade, which ended in the capture of King Louis by the Mamluks, the King did not lose interest in crusading.

Principality of Antioch

AntiochPrince of AntiochAntioch, Principality of
The Latin Empire, set up after the Fourth Crusade, asked for his help against the Byzantine, Empire of Nicaea, and the Principality of Antioch, and the Knights Templar wanted his help in Syria where the Muslims had recently captured Sidon.
Bohemond died in 1233, and Antioch, ruled by his son Bohemond V, played no important role in the Fifth Crusade, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II's struggles to take back Jerusalem in the Sixth Crusade, or Louis IX of France's Seventh Crusade.

Austorc d'Aorlhac

Austorc d'Aurillac
Austorc d'Aorlhac, composing shortly after the Crusade, was surprised that God would allow Louis IX to be defeated, but not surprised that some Christians would therefore convert to Islam.
Austorc's only piece, "Ai! Dieus! Per qu'as facha tan gran maleza", was composed after the defeat in 1250 of the Seventh Crusade under Louis IX of France.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

JerusalemKing of JerusalemCrusader
Louis ignored the agreement made during the Fifth Crusade that Damietta should be given to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, now a rump state in Acre, but he did set up an archbishopric there (under the authority of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) and used the city as a base to direct military operations against the Muslims of Syria.
A new crusade was discussed at the Council of Lyon in 1245 by Pope Innocent IV.

Shajar al-Durr

Shajar ad-DurrShajarat al-DurrMamluk sultana
In political affairs, Shajar al-Durr played a crucial role after the death of her first husband during the Seventh Crusade against Egypt (1249–1250).

An-Nasir Yusuf

al-Nasir YusufAL-NasirMalik Nasir Yusuf
Louis made an alliance with the Mamluks, who at the time were rivals of the Sultan of Damascus, and from his new base in Acre began to rebuild the other crusader cities, particularly Jaffa and Saida.
But Louis, who had already lost an army in Egypt during the Seventh Crusade and was still trying to free his imprisoned soldiers, was not willing yet to make such a deal.

Bernart de Rovenac

In a slightly later poem, D'un sirventes m'es gran voluntatz preza, Bernart de Rovenac attacks both James I of Aragon and Henry III of England for neglecting to defend "their fiefs" that the rei que conquer Suria ("king who conquered Syria") had possessed.
The two kings are James and Henry and "the king who conquered Syria" is a mocking reference to Louis, whose Seventh Crusade ended in defeat and capture at the Battle of Mansurah (1250).

As-Salih Ayyub

al-Salih Ayyubal-SalihAl-Malik al-Salih
In November, Louis marched towards Cairo, and almost at the same time, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, as-Salih Ayyub, died.
The campaign took several years to organise, but in 1249 Louis invaded Egypt on the Seventh Crusade, and occupied Damietta.

William of Villehardouin

William II of VillehardouinWilliam II VillehardouinWilliam II
In 1249 he captured Monemvasia with help from his Euboeote vassals, and later that year accompanied Louis IX of France on the Seventh Crusade, joining him in Cyprus with 400 knights and 28 ships.