A report on Sexagenary cycle

Statues of Tai Sui deities responsible for individual years of the sexagenary cycle
Bone inscribed with a table of the sexagenary cycle, dated to the early 11th century BC
24 cardinal directions
Relationship between sexagenary cycle and recent Common Era years

Cycle of sixty terms, each corresponding to one year, thus a total of sixty years for one cycle, historically used for recording time in China and the rest of the East Asian cultural sphere.

- Sexagenary cycle
Statues of Tai Sui deities responsible for individual years of the sexagenary cycle

16 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The 24 cardinal directions (ancient Chinese convention places the south (red) at the top).

Earthly Branches

3 links

The 24 cardinal directions (ancient Chinese convention places the south (red) at the top).

The twelve Earthly Branches or Terrestrial Branches are a Chinese ordering system used throughout East Asia in various contexts, including its ancient dating system, astrological traditions, zodiac and ordinals.

2017 Chinese calendar

Chinese calendar

3 links

Lunisolar calendar which identifies years, months, and days according to astronomical phenomena.

Lunisolar calendar which identifies years, months, and days according to astronomical phenomena.

2017 Chinese calendar
Page of a Chinese calendar
Five-phase and four-quarter calendars
Explanatory chart for traditional Chinese time

A sexagenary cycle, comprising stems (干, gān) and branches (支, zhī), is used as identification alongside each year and month; including intercalary months or leap months.

Chinese astrology

3 links

Based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.

Based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.

The following table shows the 60-year cycle matched up to the Western calendar for the years 1924–2043 (see sexagenary cycle article for years 1924–1983).

1729 calendar, which used the Jōkyō calendar procedure, published by Ise Grand Shrine

Japanese calendar

1 links

Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems.

Japanese calendar types have included a range of official and unofficial systems.

1729 calendar, which used the Jōkyō calendar procedure, published by Ise Grand Shrine
Japanese Calendar (woodcut, 1867)
This mural on the wall of Shin-Ochanomizu subway station in Tokyo celebrates Hazuki, the eighth month.
Koinobori, flags decorated like koi, are popular decorations around Children's Day

The Chinese sexagenary cycle was introduced early into Japan. It was often used together with era names, as in the 1729 Ise calendar shown above, which is for "the 14th year of Kyōhō, tsuchi-no-to no tori", i.e., 己酉. Now, though, the cycle is seldom used except around New Year.

Heavenly Stems

1 links

The ten Heavenly Stems or Celestial Stems are a Chinese system of ordinals that first appear during the Shang dynasty, c. 1250 BC, as the names of the ten days of the week.

The ten Heavenly Stems or Celestial Stems are a Chinese system of ordinals that first appear during the Shang dynasty, c. 1250 BC, as the names of the ten days of the week.

The Heavenly Stems were used in combination with the Earthly Branches, a similar cycle of twelve days, to produce a compound cycle of sixty days.

Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.

1911 Revolution

0 links

The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

The 1911 Revolution, or Xinhai Revolution, ended China's last imperial dynasty, the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and led to the establishment of the Republic of China.

Nanjing Road (Nanking Road) in Shanghai after the Shanghai Uprising, hung with the Five Races Under One Union flags then used by the revolutionaries in Shanghai and Northern China.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen in London
Sun Yat-sen with members of the Tongmenghui
Prince Qing with some royal cabinet members
Flag of the First Guangzhou Uprising
A statue to honor revolutionary Qiu Jin
The memorial for the 72 martyrs
The Iron Blood 18-star flag, used during the Wuchang Uprising
Paths of the uprising
Map of uprisings during the 1911 Revolution
Chen Qimei, military governor of Shanghai
One of the old buildings occupied by the Guangfuhui in Lianjiang County, Fujian
1911 battle at Ta-ping gate, Nanking. Painting by T. Miyano.
Seal of the President of Provisional Government of Republic of China
Tang Shaoyi, left. Edward Selby Little, middle. Wu Tingfang, right.
Sun Yat-sen in 1912 at one of the historic crossroads with the Five Races Under One Union flag and the Iron Blood 18-star flag
Imperial edict for abdication

The revolution is named Xinhai because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the traditional Chinese calendar.

The Battle of Ueno leading to the Fall of Edo

Boshin War

0 links

Civil war in Japan fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Imperial Court.

Civil war in Japan fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Imperial Court.

The Battle of Ueno leading to the Fall of Edo
The Battle of Ueno leading to the Fall of Edo
Campaign map of the Boshin War (1868–69). The western domains of Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa (in red) joined forces to defeat the shogunate forces at the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, and then progressively took control of the rest of Japan until the final stand-off in the northern island of Hokkaidō.
The shogunate's Kanrin Maru, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1855. The shogunate pursued modernization, but was faced by growing internal discontent against the harm to national sovereignty brought on by contact with Westerners.
Bakufu troops near Mount Fuji in 1867. The painting by French officer Jules Brunet shows an eclectic combination of Western and Japanese equipment.
Samurai in Western clothing
Guns of the Boshin War, from top to bottom: a Snider, a Starr, and an unknown musket
A British-made Minie Rifle use in the Boshin War
Mortar with shell, Boshin War (1868–1869), Japan
Scenes of the Battle of Toba–Fushimi. Shogunate forces are on the left, including battalions from Aizu. On the right are forces from Chōshū and Tosa. These are modernized battalions, but some of the forces were also traditional samurai (especially on the shogunate side).
The killing of French sailors by Tosa soldiers in the Sakai incident, March 8, 1868, Le Monde Illustré
Kondō Isami, leader of the pro-shogunate Shinsengumi, facing soldiers from Tosa (distinctive "Red bear" (赤熊) wigs of the officers) at the Battle of Kōshū-Katsunuma
Troops from Sendai, following their mobilization in April, joined a northern alliance against Imperial troops in May 1868.
Wooden cannons used by the Sendai fief during the Boshin War, Sendai City Museum
The Imperial Navy's French-built ironclad Kotetsu (the former CSS Stonewall)
The 16-year-old Emperor Meiji, moving from Kyoto to Tokyo, end of 1868
The teenaged Emperor Meiji with foreign representatives, 1868–1870
Reception by the Meiji Emperor of the second French military mission to Japan, 1872
A romanticized vision of the Battle of Hakodate (函館戦争の図), painted circa 1880. The cavalry charge, with a sinking sailship in the background, is led by the leaders of the rebellion in anachronistic samurai attire. French soldiers are shown behind the cavalry charge in white trousers. With a modern steam warship visible in the background, imperial troops with modern uniforms are on the right.

Boshin (戊辰) is the designation for the fifth year of a sexagenary cycle in traditional East Asian calendars.

Zodiac rat, showing the shǔ (鼠) character for rat/mouse

Rat (zodiac)

1 links

First of the repeating 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac, constituting part of the Chinese calendar system (with similar systems in use elsewhere).

First of the repeating 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac, constituting part of the Chinese calendar system (with similar systems in use elsewhere).

Zodiac rat, showing the shǔ (鼠) character for rat/mouse
Stone monument with a carving of a mouse, at Mount Hôrai-ji Buddhist Temple, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, showing the zǐ (子) character designating the first of the twelve Earthly Branches
The ancient shell end bone style Chinese character shǔ (鼠), for rat/mouse
Sexagenary cycle years
A sign in Gardens by the Bay, Singapore, 2016
The rat and the other animals as shown on a Romanian postage stamp
Postal stamp issued in Indonesia, commemorating the Year of the Rat/Mouse, 2008

The Prime Minister of the first emperor, Huangdi (also known as the Yellow Emperor) is said in this year to have worked out the sixty year zodiacal cycle.

Wang Yirong, Chinese politician and scholar, was the first to recognize the oracle bones as ancient writing.

Oracle bone

0 links

Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula and turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.

Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula and turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.

Wang Yirong, Chinese politician and scholar, was the first to recognize the oracle bones as ancient writing.
Oracle bone pit at Yinxu, Anyang
Ox scapula recording divinations by in the reign of King Wu Ding
Tortoise plastron with divination inscription
Holes drilled into an oracle bone
In this Shang dynasty oracle bone (which is incomplete), a diviner asks the Shang king if there would be misfortune over the next ten days; the king replied that he had consulted the ancestor Xiaojia in a worship ceremony.

The earliest oracle bones (corresponding to the reigns of Wu Ding and Zu Geng) record dates using only the 60-day cycle of stems and branches, though sometimes the month was also given.

The Japanese landing at Busan

Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)

0 links

Initial invasion in 1592 , a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597 (Chongyu War).

Initial invasion in 1592 , a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597 (Chongyu War).

The Japanese landing at Busan
Daimyo Konishi Yukinaga commanded the Japanese First Division
Daimyo Katō Kiyomasa commanded the Japanese Second Division
Katō Kiyomasa's (1562–1611) banner and battle standard
Japanese infantry employing fusillade tactics using tanegashima matchlocks
Japanese arquebuses of the Edo period were used by Japanese soldiers during Hideyoshi's invasions.
An illustration of an ampulliform Chinese fire-lance with a gunpowder charge shooting a blast of flame with lead pellets as coviative projectiles. The weapon was called the 'phalanx-charging fire-gourd'.
Joseon cannons such as this one were extensively used by the Joseon navy.
Hwacha, Joseon's multiple rocket-powered arrow launcher.
Large iron-tipped wooden arrow fired from Korean cannons.
An old painting of a Korean panokseon.
"Dongnaebu Sunjeoldo", a Korean painting from 1760 depicting the Battle of Dongnae
Map of invasions
Map of Admiral Yi Sun-Shin's Naval Campaigns – 1592
A turtle ship replica at the War Memorial in Seoul. The historical existence of the ironclad roof is disputed.
Yi Sun-sin's crane wing formation, famously used at the Battle of Hansando
Ming Dynasty Wanli Emperor
Ming-era matchlock firearms used in the 15th to 17th centuries
Painting of the Ming Army camped in Ningxia
A naval battle. Close combat was very rare during Admiral Yi Sun-sin's operations.
Korean and Chinese soldiers assault the Japanese-built fortress at Ulsan
Yeosu in 2005. Admiral Yi Sun-sin's headquarters were located here.

In Korean, the first invasion (1592–1593) is called the "Japanese Disturbance of Imjin" (倭 亂 ; wae ran), where 1592 is an imjin year in the sexagenary cycle.