Sexagenary cycle

ganzhi60 year cyclesexagenary60-year cycleChinese calendarChinese sexagenary cycleSexagesimal cycle12-year lunar calendar60-day cycle60-year calendar cycle
The sexagenary cycle, also known as the Stems-and-Branches or ganzhi, is a cycle of sixty terms, each corresponding to one year, thus a total of sixty years for one cycle, used for reckoning time in China and the rest of the East Asian cultural sphere.wikipedia
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Xinhai Revolution

1911 RevolutionChinese RevolutionChinese Revolution of 1911
However, the sexagenary cycle is used in the names of many historical events, such as the Chinese Xinhai Revolution, the Japanese Boshin War, and the Korean Imjin War.
The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.

Japanese calendar

Japanese Dateimperial yearfifth month
The cycle and its variations have been an important part of the traditional calendrical systems in Chinese-influenced Asian states and territories, particularly those of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, with the old Chinese system still in use in Taiwan.

Earthly Branches

Earthly Branch12 divisions
Each term in the sexagenary cycle consists of two Chinese characters, the first being one of the ten Heavenly Stems of the Shang-era week and the second being one of the twelve Earthly Branches representing the years of Jupiter's duodecennial orbital cycle.
The twelve Earthly Branches or Terrestrial Branches are an ordering system used throughout East Asia in various contexts, including its ancient dating system, astrological traditions, and zodiac.

Heavenly Stems

Celestial stemheavenly stemcelestial stems
Each term in the sexagenary cycle consists of two Chinese characters, the first being one of the ten Heavenly Stems of the Shang-era week and the second being one of the twelve Earthly Branches representing the years of Jupiter's duodecennial orbital cycle.
The Heavenly Stems were used in combination with the Earthly Branches, a similar cycle of twelve days, to produce a compound cycle of sixty days.

New Year

New YearsNew Year's DayNew Year Festival
Note that in China the new year, when the sexagenary count increments, is not January 1, but rather the lunar new year of the traditional Chinese calendar.

Oracle bone

oracle bonesbonesplastromancy
It appears as a means of recording days in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang oracle bones of the late second millennium BC.
The earliest oracle bones (corresponding to the reigns of Wu Ding and Zu Geng) record dates using only the 60-day cycle of stems and branches, though sometimes the month was also given.

Chinese calendar

Chinese lunar calendarlunar monthcalendar
Note that in China the new year, when the sexagenary count increments, is not January 1, but rather the lunar new year of the traditional Chinese calendar.
Written versions in ancient China included stems and branches of the year and the names of each month, including leap months as needed.

Chinese astrology

Chinese zodiacastrologyChinese
It also continues to have a role in contemporary Chinese astrology and fortune telling.
The following table shows the 60-year cycle matched up to the Western calendar for the years 1924–2043 (see sexagenary cycle article for years 1804–1923).

Tibetan calendar

Tibetan lunar calendarTibetanTibet
The Tibetan calendar also counts years using a 60-year cycle based on 12 animals and 5 elements, but while the first year of the Chinese cycle is always the year of the Wood Rat, the first year of the Tibetan cycle is the year of the Fire Rabbit (丁卯—dīng-mǎo, year 4 on the Chinese cycle).
The element-animal designations recur in cycles of 60 years (a Sexagenary cycle), starting with a (male) Wood-Rat year.

Hwangap

kanrekihwangab
The Korean (환갑; 還甲 hwangap) and Japanese tradition (還暦 kanreki) of celebrating the 60th birthday (literally 'return of calendar') reflects the influence of the sexagenary cycle as a count of years.
The number 60 means accomplishing one big 60-year cycle and starting another one in one's life following the traditional 60-year calendar cycle of the lunar calendar.

Empress Suiko

Suiko
But it was not until the Suiko era that the calendar was used for politics.
The adoption of the Sexagenary cycle calendar (Jikkan Jūnishi) in Japan is attributed to Empress Suiko in 604.

Korean calendar

Korean lunar calendarKoreanKorean lunisolar calendar
The cycle and its variations have been an important part of the traditional calendrical systems in Chinese-influenced Asian states and territories, particularly those of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, with the old Chinese system still in use in Taiwan.

Snake (zodiac)

SnakeYear of the SnakeLunar Year of the Snake
The reason the animal signs are referred to as zodiacal is that one's personality is said to be influenced by the animal signs ruling the time of birth, together with elemental aspects of the animal signs within the sexagenary cycle.

Pig (zodiac)

PigYear of the PigBoar
In the continuous sexagenary cycle of sixty years, every twelfth year corresponds to hai, 亥 (the twelfth of the twelve Earthly Branches); this re-recurring twelfth year is commonly called the Year of the Pig .

Chinese zodiac

Vietnamese zodiaczodiacKorean zodiac
The following table shows the 60-year cycle matched up to the Gregorian calendar for the years 1924–2043 (see sexagenary cycle article for years 1804–2043).

Nihon Shoki

NihongiNihonshokiNihon-Shoki
In Japan, according to Nihon shoki, the calendar was transmitted to Japan in 553.
It is widely believed that the epoch of 660 BCE was chosen because it is a "xīn-yǒu" year in the sexagenary cycle, which according to Taoist beliefs was an appropriate year for a revolution to take place.

Wuxing (Chinese philosophy)

Five ElementsWu XingFive Phases
In Ziwei, neiyin or the method of divination is the further classification of the Five Elements into 60 ming, or life orders, based on the ganzhi.

Wood (wuxing)

WoodTree (Wu Xing)Wood (classical element)
In Chinese astrology, wood is included in the 10 heavenly stems (the five elements in their yin and yang forms), which combine with the 12 Earthly Branches (or Chinese signs of the zodiac), to form the 60 year cycle.

Metal (wuxing)

Metalmetal elementMetal (classical element)
In Chinese astrology, metal is included in the 10 heavenly stems (the five elements in their yin and yang forms), which combine with the 12 Earthly Branches (or Chinese signs of the zodiac), to form the 60-year cycle.

Lichun

Risshunfirst day of springLìchūn
The chǒuyuè starts with Xiǎohán, the term before Dàhán, while the yínyuè starts with Lìchūn, the term before Yǔshuǐ, etc. Thus in the solar system a month starts anywhere from about 15 days before to 15 days after its lunar counterpart.
It's also the beginning of a sexagenary cycle.

Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)

Imjin WarJapanese invasions of KoreaJapanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
However, the sexagenary cycle is used in the names of many historical events, such as the Chinese Xinhai Revolution, the Japanese Boshin War, and the Korean Imjin War.
In Korean, the first invasion (1592–1593) is called the "Japanese (倭 wae) Disturbance (亂 ran) of Imjin" (1592 being an imjin year in the sexagenary cycle).

Koshien Stadium

Hanshin Koshien StadiumKoshienKōshien
The name Kōshien comes from the Sexagenary cycle system.

Dog (zodiac)

DogYear of the Dog
In the sexagenary cycle, 2018 (16 February 2018–4 February 2019, and every 60-year multiple before and after), is the Celestial stem/Earthly Branch year indicated by the characters 戊戌.

Tai Sui

Grand Duke JupiterFan Tai SuiThai Sue Ya