sexistgender discriminationsex discriminationgender biassexual discriminationsexgenderdiscrimination against womendiscriminationanti-sexist
Sexism is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.wikipedia
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Occupational sexism refers to discriminatory practices, statements or actions, based on a person's sex, occurring in the workplace.
These include age, caste, criminal record, height, disability, family status, gender identity, gender expression, generation, genetic characteristics, marital status, nationality, colour, race and ethnicity, religion, sex and sex characteristics, sexual orientation, social class, species, as well other categories.

Ambivalent sexism

benevolent sexismAmbivalent sexism theoryhostile sexism and benevolent sexism
Peter Glick and Susan Fiske coined the term ambivalent sexism to describe how stereotypes about women can be both positive and negative, and that individuals compartmentalize the stereotypes they hold into hostile sexism or benevolent sexism.
Ambivalent sexism is a theoretical framework which posits that sexism has two sub-components: "hostile sexism" and "benevolent sexism".


Feminist philosopher Marilyn Frye defines sexism as an "attitudinal-conceptual-cognitive-orientational complex" of male supremacy, male chauvinism, and misogyny.
Misogyny manifests in numerous ways, including social exclusion, sex discrimination, hostility, androcentrism, patriarchy, male privilege, belittling of women, disenfranchisement of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification.

Gender inequality

gender inequalitiesgender imbalanceinequality
Early female sociologists Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Ida B. Wells, and Harriet Martineau described systems of gender inequality, but did not use the term sexism, which was coined later.
Various explanations for the remaining 25% to 40% have been suggested, including women's lower willingness and ability to negotiate salary and sexual discrimination.

Marilyn Frye

Frye, Marilyn
Feminist philosopher Marilyn Frye defines sexism as an "attitudinal-conceptual-cognitive-orientational complex" of male supremacy, male chauvinism, and misogyny.
She is known for her theories on sexism, racism, oppression, and sexuality.

Bell hooks

Hooks, BellGloria Jean Watkinsbell hooks' Gloria Jean Watkins
Feminist author bell hooks defines sexism as a system of oppression that results in disadvantages for women.
that she says is "rooted in neither fear nor fantasy... 'Feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation and oppression.

Sexual harassment

sexually harassedsexually harassingharassment
Initially intended to only combat sexual harassment of women, {42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2} the prohibition of sex discrimination covers men and women.

Equal Pay Act of 1963

Equal Pay Actequalizing paypay
When the first Equal Pay Act was passed in 1963, female full-time workers earned 48.9% as much as male full-time workers.
In passing the bill, Congress stated that sex discrimination:

American Association of University Women

AAUWAssociation of Collegiate AlumnaeAmerican Association of University Women (AAUW)
A study by the American Association of University Women found that women graduates in the United States are paid less than men doing the same work and majoring in the same field.
The AAUW Legal Advocacy Fund (LAF), a program of the Foundation, is the United States' largest legal fund focused solely on sex discrimination against women in higher education.


Intentional misgendering (assigning the wrong gender to someone) and the pronoun "it" are also considered pejorative.
Transphobia is a type of prejudice and discrimination, similar to racism and sexism, and transgender people of color are often subjected to all three forms of discrimination at once.

Economic discrimination

wage discriminationdiscriminationeconomy
One form of occupational sexism is wage discrimination.
Racism, sexism, ageism, and dislike for another's religion, ethnicity or nationality have always been components of economic discrimination, much like all other forms of discrimination.

Radical feminism

radical feministradical feministsradical
Various feminist movements in the 20th century, from liberal feminism and radical feminism to standpoint feminism, postmodern feminism and queer theory have all considered language in their theorizing.
The Feminists held a more idealistic, psychologistic, and utopian philosophy, with a greater emphasis on "sex roles", seeing sexism as rooted in "complementary patterns of male and female behavior".


ideologicalideologiespolitical ideology
Sexism may be defined as an ideology based on the belief that one sex is superior to another.
Sociological examples of ideologies include: racism; sexism; heterosexism; ableism; and ethnocentrism.

Gender identity

gender identitiesgendergender spectrum
Gender discrimination is discrimination on the basis of actual or perceived gender identity.

Occupational inequality

inequality in the workplaceinequalities in the workplaceworkplace inequality

Catharine MacKinnon

Catherine MacKinnonCatharine A. MacKinnonCatherine A. MacKinnon
Anti-pornography feminist Catharine MacKinnon argues that pornography contributes to sexism by objectifying women and portraying them in submissive roles.
Two years later, Yale University Press published MacKinnon's book, Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination (1979), creating the legal claim for sexual harassment as a form of sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and any other sex-discrimination prohibition.

Standpoint feminism

feminist standpoint theorystandpoint feministsstandpoint feminist theory
Various feminist movements in the 20th century, from liberal feminism and radical feminism to standpoint feminism, postmodern feminism and queer theory have all considered language in their theorizing.
Patricia Hill Collins first introduced the idea of black feminist epistemology saying that it derives from the personal experience of black women dealing with both racism and sexism.


chauvinistchauvinisticmale chauvinism
Feminist philosopher Marilyn Frye defines sexism as an "attitudinal-conceptual-cognitive-orientational complex" of male supremacy, male chauvinism, and misogyny.

Robin Morgan

Morgan, Robin
Robin Morgan and Catharine MacKinnon suggest that certain types of pornography also contribute to violence against women by eroticizing scenes in which women are dominated, coerced, humiliated or sexually assaulted.
However, tensions over sexism within the YIP (and the New Left in general) came to a head when Morgan grew more involved in Women's Liberation and contemporary feminism.

Restitution of conjugal rights

conjugal rightsrestitution of her conjugal rights
In addition, many former British colonies, including India, maintain the concept of restitution of conjugal rights, under which a wife may be ordered by court to return to her husband; if she fails to do so she may be held in contempt of court.
Human Rights Watch has criticized this concept as being a cause of violence and discrimination against women.

Martha Nussbaum

Martha C. NussbaumMartha Craven NussbaumNussbaum, Martha
Drawing upon her earlier work on the relationship between disgust and shame, Nussbaum notes that at various times, racism, antisemitism, and sexism, have all been driven by popular revulsion.

Gender apartheid

apartheid,sexual apartheidwomen free
Gender apartheid (also called sexual apartheid or sex apartheid) is the economic and social sexual discrimination against individuals because of their gender or sex.

Women in Pakistan

Pakistani womenWomen's rights in PakistanPakistan
The status of women in Pakistan is one of systemic gender subordination even though it varies considerably across classes, regions, and the rural/urban divide due to uneven socioeconomic development and the impact of tribal, feudal, and capitalist social formations on women's lives.

Gender neutrality

gender-neutralgender neutralgender-neutral housing
Gender neutrality (adjective form: gender-neutral), also known as gender-neutralism or the gender neutrality movement, is the idea that policies, language, and other social institutions (social structures, gender roles, or gender identity) should avoid distinguishing roles according to people's sex or gender, in order to avoid discrimination arising from the impression that there are social roles for which one gender is more suited than another.


Misandry may be manifested in numerous ways, including social exclusion, sex discrimination, hostility, gynocentrism, matriarchy, belittling of men, violence against men, and sexual objectification.