Shah Jahan

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

- Shah Jahan
Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

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Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

Aurangzeb

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from July 1658 until his death.

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from July 1658 until his death.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

He held administrative and military posts under his father Shah Jahan ((r.

17th or 18th-century portrait

Mumtaz Mahal

17th or 18th-century portrait
Mumtaz Mahal with an attendant.
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Taj Mahal is the final resting place of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan.
Cenotaph of Mumtaz Mahal.
Tomb of Mumtaz Mahal in the Taj Mahal, alongside her husband Shah Jahan

Mumtaz Mahal (Persian:, ), born Arjumand Banu Begum (27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631) was the empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630

Akbar

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

There was only a transient occupation of the two provinces by the Mughals under his grandson, Shah Jahan, in the mid-17th century.

Portrait of fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir

Jahangir

The fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

The fourth Mughal Emperor, who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

Portrait of fourth Mughal Emperor Jahangir
Potrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, giving birth to Prince Salim in Fatehpur Sikri.
Emperor Jahangir weighing his son Prince Khurram (the future Shah Jahan) on a weighing scale by artist Manohar (1615).
Jahangir with falcon on horseback
The Tomb of Jahangir in Shahdara, Lahore
A Mughal miniature dated from the early 1620s depicting the Mughal emperor Jahangir preferring an audience with Sufi saint to his contemporaries, the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I and the King of England James I (d. 1625); the picture is inscribed in Persian: "Though outwardly shahs stand before him, he fixes his gazes on dervishes."
Portrait of Mughal Emperor Jahangir's making a Dua
Jahangir's Jade hookah, National Museum, New Delhi
Jahangir and Anarkali

Jahangir considered his third son, Prince Khurram (reign name Shah Jahan), his favourite.

Lahore

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
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Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Minar-e-Pakistan
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
WAPDA House
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan reigned between 1628 and 1658 and was born in Lahore in 1592.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

Early modern Islamic empire in South Asia.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

There was more conspicuous consumption among the Mughal elite, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture, especially during the reign of Shah Jahan.

Idealised portrait of the Mughal Empress Nur Jahan c. undefined 1627

Nur Jahan

The chief wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.

The chief wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.

Idealised portrait of the Mughal Empress Nur Jahan c. undefined 1627
Kandahar (Kandahar), Nur Jahan's place of birth, is now southern Afghanistan
Jahangir and Prince Khurram with Nur Jahan, c. undefined 1624. This scene is probably set in the Aram Bagh, Agra, which the empress Nur Jahan, a great patron of gardens, had re-modeled in 1621.
Silver rupee coin minted under Jahangir, bearing the name of Nur Jahan. Dated AH 1037, regnal year 22 (1627/1628 CE), minted at Patna.
Nur Jahan with her servants
Tomb of Nur Jahan in Shahdara Bagh
Nur Jahan

This confusion is shown by later sources mistakenly identifying Nur Jahan as the mother of Shah Jahan.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.

Agra

City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 378 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

City on the banks of the Yamuna river in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, about 210 km south of the national capital New Delhi and 378 km west of the state capital Lucknow.

The Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani in Sikandra was originally built as a Baradari by Sultan Sikandar Lodi in 1495.
The Town and Fort of Agra, an engraving.
Map of the city, c. 1914
Agra, Main Street, c. 1858
The Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb
Tomb of Akbar the Great
The sweet dish petha, which is a symbol of Mughal legacy.
Agra Cantt Railway Station
Railway Map of Agra (the line to Jaipur has meanwhile been converted to broad gauge)
Agra Cantt. Railway Station
Inner Ring Road link Yamuna Expressway to Lucknow expessway, Fatehabad Road, Shamshabad Road, NH-3, NH-11 Agra
Agra University
St John College
St Peter's College
Agra College
The most common front view of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal and outlying buildings as seen from across the Yamuna River (northern view)
Tombs of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal from Agra fort
The Jahangiri Mahal, the largest residence in the complex
Musamman Burj, an octagonal Tower which was the residence of Shah Jahan's favourite empress, Mumtaz Maḥal
The Moti Masjid or the Pearl Mosque
Amar Singh Gate, one of two entrances into Agra's Red Fort

Agra was the foremost city of the Indian subcontinent and the capital of the Mughal Empire under Mughal emperors Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.

Miniature portrait of Dara Shikoh

Dara Shikoh

Miniature portrait of Dara Shikoh
18th-century portrait of Dara Shikoh
Dara's brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years, ca 1637
Young Dara Shikoh (Left) and Mian Mir (Right)
The marriage of Dara Shikoh and Nadira Begum, 1875–90
Wedding procession of Dara Shikoh, with Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb behind him. Royal Collection Trust, London.
Dara Shikoh with his army
Humayun's Tomb, where the remains of Dara Shikoh were interred in an unidentified grave.
A page from the Majma-ul-Bahrain, Victoria Memorial, Calcutta.
Dara Shikoh (with Mian Mir and Mullah Shah Badakhshi), ca. 1635
A painting from the Persian translation of Yoga Vasistha manuscript, 1602
A Prince in Iranian Costume by Muhammad Khan. Dara Shikoh Album, Agra, 1633–34.
Shah Jahan Receiving Dara Shikoh

Dara Shikoh (c. March 1615 – 30 August 1659) was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan ((r.

Artistic depiction of Queen Mother Mariam-uz-Zamani, the favorite and most influential sultana of Emperor Akbar.

Mariam-uz-Zamani

Mariam-uz-Zamani ; (c.

Mariam-uz-Zamani ; (c.

Artistic depiction of Queen Mother Mariam-uz-Zamani, the favorite and most influential sultana of Emperor Akbar.
Artistic impression of Mariam-uz-Zamani, chief Rajput Queen of Akbar, commonly known as Jodha bai.
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam-uz-Zamani begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.
A painting describing the scene of the birth of the 4th Mughal emperor of India, Jahangir.
Embriodered portrait of Mariam-uz-Zamani
Khawabgah of Mariam-uz-Zamani within her palace in Fatehpur Sikri, commonly known as Jodha bai Palace.
Begum Shahi Mosque commissioned by Jahangir in honor of his mother at Lahore.
A 19th-century sketch of Queen Mother Mariam-uz-Zamani.
Tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani, Sikandra, Agra.
Flight of stairs leading to the actual grave of Mariam-uz-Zamani Begum.
Portrait of Mariam-uz-Zamani

She was the mother of Akbar's eldest surviving son and eventual successor, Jahangir, and grandmother of Shah Jahan.