Shah Jahan

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

- Shah Jahan
Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

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Shalimar Gardens, Lahore

The Shalimar Gardens are a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore, Pakistan.

The Shalimar Gardens are a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore, Pakistan.

The gardens provide a popular recreation spot for Lahore's residents
Inside Shalimar Gardens
Shalimar Gardens in 1895
The middle level terrace of the garden, known as the Faiz Bakhsh terrace, was the Emperor's garden.
Nigar Khana
East wall corner of the second level terrace
Minaret on the west wall corner of the second level terrace
A Mughal style structure inside the gardens

Construction of the gardens began in 1641 during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan, and was completed in 1642.

Painting of the wooden replica of the Peacock Throne in the Diwan-i-Khas of the Red Fort, around 1850

Peacock Throne

Famous jewelled throne that was the seat of the emperors of the Mughal Empire in India.

Famous jewelled throne that was the seat of the emperors of the Mughal Empire in India.

Painting of the wooden replica of the Peacock Throne in the Diwan-i-Khas of the Red Fort, around 1850
Shah Jahan seated on a minor throne, which probably shared some stylistic elements with the Peacock Throne
The Persian king Nader Shah seated upon the Peacock Throne with members of the court, after his victory at the Battle of Karnal
Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, as a traveller wearing Mughal dress, from his Les Six Voyages, published in 1679
Shah Alam II seated on the throne, next to him the crown prince. Although the original Peacock Throne was lost by the time of this painting, it depicts what was either a replacement throne modelled on the original one, or painted from memories and descriptions (circa 1800)
Akbar II seated on the throne (circa 1811)
Akbar II in durbar (holding court) in the Diwan-i Khas at the Red Fort (circa 1830)

It was commissioned in the early 17th century by Emperor Shah Jahan and was located in the Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audiences, or Ministers' Room) in the Red Fort of Delhi.

The mosque is considered to have the most elaborate display of tile work in South Asia.

Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta

17th-century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh.

17th-century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh.

The mosque is considered to have the most elaborate display of tile work in South Asia.
The mosque's tile work exhibits Timurid influences introduced during Shah Jahan's campaigns in Central Asia.
The entry way to the main prayer hall is from the central courtyard.
The mosque's main dome has tiles arranged in a stellate pattern to represent the night sky.
The mosque showcases brickwork in geometric patterns.
Brickwork along corridors
The mosque’s mihrab
Arcades around the central courtyard feature bricks laid in geometric patterns
A close up view of mosque's geometric brickwork.
Some peripheral domes feature colored tiles as well as brick
Arches off of the central prayer chamber are decorated with blue Sindhi tiles
Some secondary domes are decorated with tile work
View from the gardens
A view of the mosque's courtyard
Pillar relief corner
The mosque's iwans, or entry portals, are also decorated with tile work.

It was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, who bestowed it to the city as a token of gratitude, and is heavily influenced by Central Asian architecture - a reflection of Shah Jahan's campaigns near Samarkand shortly before the mosque was designed.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Gauhar Ara Begum

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Gauhar Ara Begum (17 June 1631 – c. undefined 1706) was a Mughal princess and the fourteenth and youngest child of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal.

Hindal Mirza, presents young Akbar's portrait to Humayun, during Akbar's circumcision celebrations in Kabul, c. 1546 AD

Ruqaiya Sultan Begum

Ruqaiya Sultan Begum (alternative spelling: Ruqayya, Ruqayyah) (c.

Ruqaiya Sultan Begum (alternative spelling: Ruqayya, Ruqayyah) (c.

Hindal Mirza, presents young Akbar's portrait to Humayun, during Akbar's circumcision celebrations in Kabul, c. 1546 AD
Inside the Gardens of Babur, located in Kabul, Afghanistan

In later life, she raised Akbar's grandson, Khurram (the future emperor Shah Jahan).

Kandahari Begum

Kandahari Begum (also spelled Qandahari Begum; 1593 – ?; also known as Kandahari Mahal; Persian, ; meaning "Lady from Kandahar") was the first wife of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan and the mother of his first child, Princess Parhez Banu Begum.

Peshawar

Capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its largest city.

Capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its largest city.

In ancient Indian subcontinent, the city of Purushapura (which became Peshawar), was established near the Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati
The nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery was established in 46 CE, and was once a major centre of Buddhist learning.
Peshawar's Kanishka stupa once kept sacred Buddhist relics in the Kanishka casket.
Clock Tower Peshawar
Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.
The interior of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is elaborately frescoed with elegant and intricately detailed floral and geometric motifs.
Peshawar's Sunehri Mosque dates from the Mughal era.
Peshawar's Bala Hissar fort was once the royal residence of the Durrani Afghan kings.
The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival style.
Built for wealthy local merchants in a Central Asian architectural style, the Sethi Mohallah features several homes dating from the British era.
Edwardes College was built during the British-era, and is now one of Peshawar's most prestigious educational institutions.
The city serves as a gateway to the Khyber Pass, whose beginning is marked by the Khyber Gate.
Peshawar sits at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, which has been used as a trade route since the Kushan era approximately 2,000 years ago.
A view of old Peshawar's famous Qissa Khawani Bazaar.
Much of Peshawar's old city still features examples of traditional style architecture.
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City Center Road is the major trade zone in Peshawar.
Hayatabad area
New flyovers, such as this one near the suburb of Hayatabad, have been constructed in recent years to improve traffic flow.
Peshawar International Airport offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
One of Peshawar's privately run intercity bus terminals.
The Peshawar Museum is known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist art.
University of Peshawar
Islamia College University
Iqra National University
Museum of Peshawar University
FAST Peshawar Campus
Bhittani Plaza
BBQ shop on Food Street
Peshawar Gymkhana Cricket Ground

Peshawar was bestowed with its own set of Shalimar Gardens during the reign of Shah Jahan, which no longer exist.

Ahmednagar

City in Ahmednagar district in the state of Maharashtra, India, about 120 km northeast of Pune and 114 km from Aurangabad.

City in Ahmednagar district in the state of Maharashtra, India, about 120 km northeast of Pune and 114 km from Aurangabad.

Salabat Khan's tomb.
Ahmednagar fort entrance.
Samadhi of Meher Baba

It was one of the Deccan sultanates, which lasted until its conquest by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in 1636.

Balkh

Town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about 20 km northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.

Town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about 20 km northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.

Map showing Balkh (here indicated as Bactres), the capital of Bactria during the Hellenistic Age
Trapusa and Bahalika, two merchants from Balkh, offering food to the Buddha. Modern Burmese depiction.
A silver dirham of the Umayyad Caliphate, minted at Balkh al-Baida in AH 111 (=729/30 AD).
The Green Mosque of Balkh
A street in Balkh with several horse carts, c. 1970s
Remains of a Hellenistic capital found in Balkh

The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan fruitlessly fought them there for several years in the 1640s.

1830 edition of Voyages dans les États du Grand Mogol

François Bernier

French physician and traveller.

French physician and traveller.

1830 edition of Voyages dans les États du Grand Mogol
Engraving from Voyage de François Bernier, Paul Maret, 1710.

"(...)do not be surprised if without knowledge of Sanskrit I am going to tell you many things taken from books in that language; you will know that my Agha Danismand Khan paid for the presence of one of the most famous pandits in India, who before had been pensioned by Dara Shikoh, the oldest son of Shah Jahan, and that this pandit, apart from attracting the most learned scientists to our circle, was at my side for over three years. When I became weary of explaining to my Agha the latest discoveries of William Harvey and Pequet in anatomy, and to reason with him on the philosophy of Gassendi and Descartes, which I translated into Persian (because that is what I did during five or six years) it was up to our pandit to argue."