Shahrbaraz

Sasanid general ShahrbarazShahrvarazShahrwarazShahrwarāzŠahrwarāz
Shahrbaraz (also spelled Shahrvaraz or Shahrwaraz; ; New Persian: شهربراز), was king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire from 27 April 630 to 9 June 630.wikipedia
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Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine–Sasanian War
He is furthermore noted for his important role during the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, and the events that followed afterwards.
Khosrow took advantage of the incompetence of Heraclius' generals to launch an attack on Byzantine Syria, under the leadership of the Persian general Shahrbaraz.

Niketas the Persian

Niketas
Shahrbaraz also had another son named Niketas the Persian, who may be from the same woman or from another.
He was the son and heir of the Sassanid Persian general and briefly shahanshah, Shahrbaraz.

Ardashir III

Ardeshir
He usurped the throne from Ardashir III, and was killed by Iranian nobles after forty days.
However, sometime in 629, the Nimruzi withdrew their support for the shah, and started to conspire with the distinguished Iranian general Shahrbaraz to overthrow him.

Shapur-i Shahrvaraz

He was married to the sister of the Sasanian king Khosrow II, Mirhran, with whom Shahrbaraz had one boy named Shapur-i Shahrvaraz.
Shapur-i Shahrvaraz was the son of Shahrbaraz, the distinguished Iranian military commander (spahbed) and briefly shah of Iran.

Spahbed

ispahbadhSpahbodIspahbad
Before usurping the Sasanian throne he was a general (spahbed) under Khosrow II (590–628).
Other holders of the rank are difficult to identify from the literary sources, since the office of spāhbed was held in tandem with other offices and titles, such as Shahrwarāz ("Boar of the Empire"), which are often treated as personal names.

Khosrow II

Khosrau IIChosroes IIKhosrow Parviz
He was married to the sister of the Sasanian king Khosrow II, Mirhran, with whom Shahrbaraz had one boy named Shapur-i Shahrvaraz. Before usurping the Sasanian throne he was a general (spahbed) under Khosrow II (590–628).
Khosrow II, along with Shahrbaraz and his other best generals, quickly captured Dara and Edessa in 604, and recaptured lost territory in the north, which made the Sasanian–Byzantine borders go back to the pre-591 frontier before Khosrow gave Maurice territory in return for military aid against Bahram Chobin.

Heraclius

Emperor HeracliusHeraclius IHeraclius the Younger
In 610, Heraclius, an Armenian of probable Arsacid descent, revolted against the Byzantine Emperor Phocas and killed him, crowning himself as Emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
A major counter-attack led by Heraclius two years later was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed; the Persians devastated parts of Asia Minor and captured Chalcedon across from Constantinople on the Bosporus.

Battle of Antioch (613)

Battle of Antiochthe victory in AntiochAntioch, 613 Battle of
After becoming Byzantine Emperor, he prepared a major counter-attack against the Sasanians outside Antioch in 613, but was decisively defeated by Shahrbaraz, who inflicted heavy losses on the Byzantine army and then captured the city, giving the Sasanians naval access to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Battle of Antioch took place in 613 outside Antioch, Syria between a Byzantine army led by emperor Heraclius and a Persian Sassanid army under generals (spahbed) Shahin and Shahrbaraz as part of the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628.

Sasanian Egypt

ProvinceEgyptEgypt would remain in Persian hands for 10 years
By 621, the province was securely in Sasanian hands, and a certain Sahralanyozan was appointed as its governor.
It lasted from 619 to 629, until the Sasanian general Shahrbaraz made an alliance with the Byzantine emperor Heraclius to have control over Egypt returned to him.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem, IsraelAl-QudsQuds
One of most important events during his career was when he led the Sasanian army towards Palaestina, and after a bloody siege captured Jerusalem, a city sacred to the Christians.
Following Sassanid Khosrau II's early 7th century push through Syria, his generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin attacked Jerusalem aided by the Jews of Palaestina Prima, who had risen up against the Byzantines.

Antioch

Antioch on the OrontesAntiocheneSyrian Antioch
After becoming Byzantine Emperor, he prepared a major counter-attack against the Sasanians outside Antioch in 613, but was decisively defeated by Shahrbaraz, who inflicted heavy losses on the Byzantine army and then captured the city, giving the Sasanians naval access to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Byzantines were defeated by forces under the generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin Vahmanzadegan at the Battle of Antioch, after which the city fell to the Sassanians, together with much of Syria and eastern Anatolia.

House of Mihran

MihranidMihran familyMihran
Shahrbaraz belonged to the House of Mihran, one of the Seven Parthian clans; he was the son of a certain Ardashir.
Notable generals from the Mihran clan included: Perozes, the Persian commander-in-chief during the Anastasian War and the Battle of Dara, Golon Mihran, who fought against the Byzantines in Armenia in 572–573, and Bahram Chobin, who led a coup against Khosrau II and briefly usurped the crown from 590 to 591, and Shahrwaraz, a commander of the last Roman-Persian war and a usurper.

Byzantine–Sasanian wars

Byzantine–Sassanid WarsByzantine-Sassanid WarsByzantine-Sasanian wars
Shahrbaraz is first mentioned when Khosrow II started the last and most devastating of the Byzantine–Sasanian wars, which was going to last 26 years.
A major counter-attack led by Heraclius two years later was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin and the Roman position collapsed; the Persians devastated parts of Asia Minor, and captured Chalcedon on the Bosporus.

Battle of Sarus

Sarus, Battle of
The Battle of Sarus was a successful retreat for the Byzantines that panegyrists magnified.
The Battle of Sarus was a battle fought in April 625 between the East Roman (Byzantine) army, led by Emperor Heraclius, and the Persian general Shahrbaraz.

Shahin Vahmanzadegan

Shahin
Shahrbaraz, along with Shahin and Shahraplakan were later sent by the orders of Khosrow II to trap the forces of Heraclius.
In 613 the Roman offensive pressed on into Syria, but the combined Persian armies under Shahin and Shahrbaraz crushingly defeated Heraclius near Antioch.

True Cross

Holy CrossCrossLignum Crucis
After his conquest of Jerusalem the Holy Cross was carried away in triumph.
Thirteen years later, in 628, the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeated Khosrau and regained the relic from Shahrbaraz.

Shahran-Guraz

Shahran Goraz
Ferdowsi has split Shahrbaraz's character into two: Farayin who was the usurper, and Shahran-Guraz who supported Bahram Chobin's rebellion.
*Shahrbaraz

Shahralanyozan

Sahralanyozan
By 621, the province was securely in Sasanian hands, and a certain Sahralanyozan was appointed as its governor.
Sahralanyozan is first mentioned in 621 as being appointed the military governor of Egypt after the conquest of the province by the Sasanian general Shahrbaraz.

Farrukhzad

Khosrow then sent Farrukhzad to negotiate with him.
628-629), who was only after one year murdered by the rebellious former Sasanian army chief (spahbed) Shahrbaraz, who usurped the throne.

Nicetas (cousin of Heraclius)

NicetasNiketasGeneral Nicetas
After the Byzantine defeat outside Antioch, Heraclius and his brother Theodore, along with General Nicetas, combined their armies in Syria, but were defeated by Shahrbaraz and his forces who besieged Damascus and captured it along with a large number of Byzantine troops as prisoners.
Following the conquest of Syria and Palestine, the Persian general Shahrbaraz began the invasion of Egypt.

Kardarigan (7th century)

Kardarigangeneral of the same name
Disappointed by Shahrbaraz's failure, Khosrow II sent a messenger bearing a letter to Kardarigan, who was the second-in-command of the Sasanian army.
602–610), he sent Kardarigan along with Shahrbaraz against Byzantine positions in Armenia and Anatolia (circa 607/608).

Siege of Ctesiphon (629)

captured Ctesiphonbesieged CtesiphonSiege of Ctesiphon
On 27 April 630 Shahrbaraz besieged Ctesiphon with a force of 6,000 men.
The Siege of Ctesiphon took place on 27 April 629 between the forces of Shahrbaraz and Ardashir III.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
Shahrbaraz (also spelled Shahrvaraz or Shahrwaraz; ; New Persian: شهربراز), was king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire from 27 April 630 to 9 June 630.
In 613, outside Antioch, the Persian generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin decisively defeated a major counter-attack led in person by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius.

Arab–Byzantine wars

Arab–Byzantine WarByzantine-Arab WarsByzantine–Arab Wars
During the same period, Niketas entered in the service of the Byzantines, and would later appear as one of the Byzantine generals at the Battle of Yarmouk during the Arab–Byzantine wars.
Just a few months after Emperor Heraclius and the Persian general Shahrbaraz agreed on terms for the withdrawal of Persian troops from occupied Byzantine eastern provinces in 629, Arab and Byzantine troops confronted each other at the Mu'tah in response to the murder of Muhammad's ambassador at the hands of the Ghassanids, a Byzantine vassal kingdom.

Shahraplakan

Shahrbaraz, along with Shahin and Shahraplakan were later sent by the orders of Khosrow II to trap the forces of Heraclius.
Shahraplakan followed him but did not engage him, hoping first to join with the army led by another Persian general, Shahrbaraz.