Shaivism

ShaivaShaiviteSaiviteSaivismShaivaiteShaivitesSaivaŚaivaShivaiteSaivites
Shaivism (Śaivam; சைவம்; Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय; শৈৱ; শৈব; శైవ సాంప్రదాయం; ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ; ശൈവമതം;ଶିବ ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟଂ; ශිවාගම/ශෛවවාදය) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.wikipedia
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Shiva

Lord ShivaSivaLord Siva
Shaivism (Śaivam; சைவம்; Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय; শৈৱ; শৈব; శైవ సాంప్రదాయం; ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ; ശൈവമതം;ଶିବ ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟଂ; ශිවාගම/ශෛවවාදය) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
He is one of the supreme beings within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.

Shaiva Siddhanta

Saiva SiddhantaSiddhantaSaiva
The Shaiva have many sub-traditions ranging from devotional dualistic theism such as Shaiva Siddhanta to yoga-oriented monistic non-theism such as Kashmiri Shaivism.
Shaiva Siddhanta (IAST: Śaiva siddhānta) is a subtradition of Shaivism that propounds a dualistic philosophy where the ultimate and ideal goal of a being is to become an enlightened soul through Lord Shiva's grace.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu culture
Shaivism (Śaivam; சைவம்; Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय; শৈৱ; শৈব; శైవ సాంప్రదాయం; ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ; ശൈവമതം;ଶିବ ସମ୍ପ୍ରଦାୟଂ; ශිවාගම/ශෛවවාදය) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
The four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.

Pashupata Shaivism

PashupataPasupataPashupata sect
In the early centuries of the common era is the first clear evidence of Pāśupata Shaivism.
Pashupata Shaivism is the oldest of the major Shaivite Hindu schools.

Rudra

KidlatLord RudraRudrá
The origin of Shaivism may be traced to the conception of Rudra in the Rig Veda.
The Shri Rudram hymn from the Yajurveda is dedicated to Rudra, and is important in the Saivism sect.

Agama (Hinduism)

AgamasAgamaAgamic
It considers both the Vedas and the Agama texts as important sources of theology.
The three main branches of Agama texts are Shaiva, Vaishnava, and Shakta.

Shaktism

ShaktaSaktaSaktism
It is closely related to Shaktism, and some Shaiva worship in Shiva and Shakti temples.
Shaktism's ideas have influenced Vaishnavism and Shaivism traditions, with the Goddess considered the Shakti of Vishnu and Shiva respectively, and revered prominently in numerous Hindu temples and festivals.

Gavin Flood

Flood, Gavin D.
Gavin Flood characterizes these views as "speculative", saying that it is not clear from the seal if the figure has three faces, or is seated in a yoga posture, or even that the shape is intended to represent a human figure.
Gavin Dennis Flood (born 1954) is a British scholar of comparative religion specialising in Shaivism and phenomenology, but with research interests that span South Asian traditions.

Shvetashvatara Upanishad

Svetasvatara UpanishadShvetashvataraSvetasvatara
The ancient text Shvetashvatara Upanishad dated to late 1st millennium BCE mentions terms such as Rudra, Shiva and Maheshwaram, but its interpretation as a theistic or monistic text of Shaivism is disputed.
It is a foundational text of the philosophy of Shaivism, as well as the Yoga and Vedanta schools of Hinduism.

Vaishnavism

VaishnavaVaishnaviteVaishnavaite
320 - 500 CE) the genre of Purana literature developed in India, and many of these Puranas contain extensive chapters on Shaivism – along with Vaishnavism, Shaktism, Smarta Traditions of Brahmins and other topics – suggesting the importance of Shaivism by then.
Vaishnavism is one of the major Hindu denominations along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.

Bhakti movement

bhaktiBhakti ageBhakti era
Shaivism was likely the predominant tradition in South India, co-existing with Buddhism and Jainism, before the Vaishnava Alvars launched the Bhakti movement in the 7th-century, and influential Vedanta scholars such as Ramanuja developed a philosophical and organizational framework that helped Vaishnava expand.
The Bhakti movement regionally developed around different gods and goddesses, and some sub-sects were Vaishnavism (Vishnu), Shaivism (Shiva), Shaktism (Shakti goddesses), and Smartism.

Linga Purana

LingaLiṅga Purāṇa
The most important Shaiva Puranas of this period include the Shiva Purana and the Linga Purana.
The Linga Purana (लिङ्ग पुराण, IAST: Liṅga Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, and a Shaivism text of Hinduism.

Shiva Purana

Shiv MahapuranŚiva PurāṇaShiva
The most important Shaiva Puranas of this period include the Shiva Purana and the Linga Purana.
The Shiva Purana is one of the eighteen Purana genre of Sanskrit texts in Hinduism, and part of the Shaivism literature corpus.

Lingam

lingaShivalingaShiva Linga
One sub-group is called Vedic-Puranic, who use the terms such as "Shiva, Mahadeva, Maheshvara and others" synonymously, and they use iconography such as the Linga, Nandi, Trishula (trident), as well as anthropomorphic statues of Shiva in temples to help focus their practices.
A lingam (Sanskrit: लिङ्गम, lit. "sign, symbol or mark"), sometimes referred to as linga or Shiva linga, is an abstract or aniconic representation of the Hindu deity Shiva in Shaivism.

Alvars

AzhwarAlwarsAzhwars
Shaivism was likely the predominant tradition in South India, co-existing with Buddhism and Jainism, before the Vaishnava Alvars launched the Bhakti movement in the 7th-century, and influential Vedanta scholars such as Ramanuja developed a philosophical and organizational framework that helped Vaishnava expand.
Together with the contemporary sixty three Shaiva Nayanars, they are among the most important saints from Tamil Nadu.

Patanjali

PatañjaliPathanjaliMaharishi Patanjali
Patanjali's, dated to the 2nd century BCE, mentions the term Shiva-bhagavata in section 5.2.76.

Nandi (mythology)

NandiNandi (bull)Nandi bull
One sub-group is called Vedic-Puranic, who use the terms such as "Shiva, Mahadeva, Maheshvara and others" synonymously, and they use iconography such as the Linga, Nandi, Trishula (trident), as well as anthropomorphic statues of Shiva in temples to help focus their practices.
According to Saivite siddhantic tradition, he is considered as the chief guru of eight disciples of Nandinatha Sampradaya, namely, Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana, Sanatkumara, Tirumular, Vyagrapada, Patanjali, and Sivayoga Muni, who were sent in eight different directions, to spread the wisdom of Shaivism.

Kushan Empire

KushanKushansKushana
Other evidence that is possibly linked to the importance of Shaivism in ancient times are in epigraphy and numismatics, such as in the form of prominent Shiva-like reliefs on Kushan Empire era gold coins.
The great Kushan emperor Vima Kadphises may have embraced Shaivism (a sect of Hinduism), as surmised by coins minted during the period.

Bhakti

bhaktadevoteeBhakthi
The Shaiva Upanishads present diverse ideas, ranging from bhakti-style theistic dualism themes to a synthesis of Shaiva ideas with Advaitic (nondualism), Yoga, Vaishnava and Shakti themes.
The term also refers to a movement, pioneered by Alvars and Nayanars, that developed around the gods Vishnu (Vaishnavism), Brahma (Brahmanism), Shiva (Shaivism) and Devi (Shaktism) in the second half of the 1st millennium CE.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
It arrived in Southeast Asia shortly thereafter, leading to the construction of thousands of Shaiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in these regions.
Besides drawing on a Mahāyāna Buddhist framework, these texts also borrowed deities and material from other Indian religious traditions, such as the Śaiva and Pancharatra traditions, local god/goddess cults, and local spirit worship (such as yaksha or nāga spirits).

Tripundra

holy ash
Tripundra (त्रिपुण्ड्र tripuṇḍra "three marks") is a Saivite tilaka, and a body art with origins in South India.

Kaivalya Upanishad

Kaivalya
It is classified as a Shaiva Upanishad, and survives into the modern times in two versions, one attached to the Krishna Yajurveda and other attached to the Atharvaveda.

Elephanta Caves

Elephanta
Between the 5th and 11th century CE, major Shaiva temples had been built in central, southern and eastern regions of the subcontinent, including those at Badami cave temples, Aihole, Elephanta Caves, Ellora Caves (Kailasha, cave 16), Khajuraho, Bhuvaneshwara, Chidambaram, Madurai, Conjeevaram.
The temple complex is primarily the abode of Shiva, depicted in widely celebrated carvings which narrate legends and mythologies of Shaivism.

Brihajjabala Upanishad

Bṛhajjābāla
This Hindu text is attached to the Atharvaveda, and is one of 14 Shaiva Upanishads.

Varanasi

BenaresBanarasKashi
Kashi (Varanasi) is declared as particularly special in numerous Shaiva texts and Upanishads, as well as in the pan-Hindu Sannyasa Upanishads such as the Jabala Upanishad.
The city's religious importance continued to grow in the 8th century, when Adi Shankara established the worship of Shiva as an official sect of Varanasi.