Sham surgery

shamsham-operatedsham-operated group
Sham surgery (placebo surgery) is a faked surgical intervention that omits the step thought to be therapeutically necessary.wikipedia
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Placebo

placebo effectplacebosplacebo studies
Thus sham surgery serves an analogous purpose to placebo drugs, neutralizing biases such as the placebo effect.
Common placebos include inert tablets (like sugar pills), inert injections (like saline), sham surgery, and other procedures.

Scientific control

controlcontrolscontrolled
In clinical trials of surgical interventions, sham surgery is an important scientific control.
In some cases, sham surgery may be necessary to achieve blinding.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
Sham surgery (placebo surgery) is a faked surgical intervention that omits the step thought to be therapeutically necessary.

Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
In clinical trials of surgical interventions, sham surgery is an important scientific control.

Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
This is because it isolates the specific effects of the treatment as opposed to the incidental effects caused by anesthesia, the incisional trauma, pre- and postoperative care, and the patient's perception of having had a regular operation.

Surgical incision

incisionincisionssurgical wound
This is because it isolates the specific effects of the treatment as opposed to the incidental effects caused by anesthesia, the incisional trauma, pre- and postoperative care, and the patient's perception of having had a regular operation.

Institutional review board

Institutional Review BoardsInstitutional Review Board (IRB)IRB
A number of studies done under IRB-approved settings have delivered important and surprising results.

Minimally invasive procedure

minimally invasiveminimally invasive surgerynon-invasive
With the progress in minimally invasive surgery, sham procedures can be more easily performed as the sham incision can be kept small similarly to the incision in the studied procedure.

Internal thoracic artery

internal mammary arteryinternal mammaryinternal mammary branch
In 1939 Fieschi introduced internal mammary ligation as a procedure to improve blood flow to the heart.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
In neurosurgery, cell-transplant surgical interventions were offered in many centers in the world for patients with Parkinson disease until sham-controlled experiments involving the drilling of burr holes into the skull demonstrated such interventions ineffective and possibly harmful.

Burr (cutter)

burrburrsburs
In neurosurgery, cell-transplant surgical interventions were offered in many centers in the world for patients with Parkinson disease until sham-controlled experiments involving the drilling of burr holes into the skull demonstrated such interventions ineffective and possibly harmful.

Skull

craniumcranialhuman skull
In neurosurgery, cell-transplant surgical interventions were offered in many centers in the world for patients with Parkinson disease until sham-controlled experiments involving the drilling of burr holes into the skull demonstrated such interventions ineffective and possibly harmful.

Dura mater

duraduralcovering of the spinal cord
Kim et al. point out that sham procedures can differ significantly in invasiveness, for instance in neurosurgical experiments the investigator may drill a burr hole to the dura mater only or enter the brain.

Arthroscopy

arthroscopic surgeryarthroscopicarthroscopic knee surgery
Moseley and coworkers studied the effect of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee establishing two treatment groups and a sham-operated control group.

Osteoarthritis

arthrosisdegenerative joint diseaseKnee osteoarthritis
Moseley and coworkers studied the effect of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee establishing two treatment groups and a sham-operated control group.

Freezing behavior

freezingfreezing behaviour
Two groups of rats were tested: rats that had been lesioned in the basolateral amygdala and rats that were the control group (or sham-operated group).

Pain management

pain medicinepain reliefpain control
An analysis of the 13 highest quality studies of pain treatment with acupuncture, published in January 2009 in the British Medical Journal, was unable to quantify the difference in the effect on pain of real, sham and no acupuncture.

Alternative medicine

complementary and alternative medicineholistic healthintegrative medicine
An example of a placebo is an inert pill, but it can include more dramatic interventions like sham surgery.

Heliothis virescens

tobacco budwormvirescens
subflexa. Antennectomized female Heliothis virescens, or those who had their antennae removed, mated with hair-pencil pheromone displaying males less often than those which had been sham-operated, suggesting that H.

Low back pain

lumbagolower back painlower back
Acupuncture is no better than placebo, usual care, or sham acupuncture for nonspecific acute pain or sub-chronic pain.

Blinded experiment

double-blinddouble blindblinded
In some cases, sham surgery may be necessary for the blinding process.