Shanxi

Shanxi ProvinceShansiShangxiShansi ProvinceShanxi, ChinaShānxīJin cultureShanxi Province, ChinaHuaxianJin
Shanxi (formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked province in Northern China.wikipedia
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Taiyuan

JinyangTaiyuan, ChinaTaiyuan Prefecture
The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level cities are Changzhi and Datong.
Taiyuan (, also known as Bīng, Jìnyáng is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in Northern China.

Datong

PingchengDatong CityTatung
The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level cities are Changzhi and Datong.
Datong is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi Province in the People's Republic of China.

Changzhi

Changzhi, ChinaChangzhi, Shanxi, ChinaChangzhi City
The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level cities are Changzhi and Datong.
Changzhi is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi Province, China, bordering the provinces of Hebei and Henan to the northeast and east, respectively.

Jin (Chinese state)

JinState of JinJin state
Its one-character abbreviation is "undefined", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.
Jin (, Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang, was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.

Shaanxi

Shaanxi ProvinceShensiShǎnxī
Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the north.
It lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N).

North China

Northern ChinaNorthnorthern
Shanxi (formerly romanised as Shansi) is a landlocked province in Northern China.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia.

Henan

Henan ProvinceHenan, ChinaHonan
Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the north.
Its neighboring provinces are Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui and Hubei.

Hebei

Hebei ProvinceHopeiHopeh
Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the north.
The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, and Shandong to the southeast.

Jin Chinese

JinJin languagecjy
Jin Chinese is considered by some linguists to be a distinct language from Mandarin, and its geographical range covers most of Shanxi.
Its geographical distribution covers most of Shanxi province except for the lower Fen River valley, much of central Inner Mongolia and adjoining areas in Hebei, Henan, and Shaanxi provinces.

Han (state)

HanState of HanHán
It underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period (403–221 BC).
It was located in central China (modern-day Shanxi and Henan) in a region south and east of Luoyang, the capital of the Eastern Zhou.

Warring States period

Warring StatesWarring States eraChina
It underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period (403–221 BC).

Zhao (state)

ZhaoState of ZhaoZhao state
It underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period (403–221 BC).
Its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces.

Wei (state)

WeiState of WeiWei state
It underwent a three-way split into the states of Han, Zhao and Wei in 403 BC, the traditional date taken as the start of the Warring States period (403–221 BC).
Its territory lay between the states of Qin and Qi and included parts of modern-day Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, and Shandong.

Taihang Mountains

TaihangTaihang MountainMount Taihang
The name Shanxi means "West of the Mountains", a reference to the province's location west of the Taihang Mountains.
The Taihang Mountains are a Chinese mountain range running down the eastern edge of the Loess Plateau in Shanxi, Henan and Hebei provinces.

Tang dynasty

TangTang ChinaTang Empire
The Tang Dynasty (618–907) originated in Taiyuan.
Li Yuan was Duke of Tang and governor of Taiyuan, modern Shanxi, during the Sui dynasty's collapse, which was caused in part by the Sui failure to conquer the northern part of the Korean peninsula during the Goguryeo–Sui War.

Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia Autonomous RegionNei MongolInner
Shanxi borders Hebei to the east, Henan to the south, Shaanxi to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the north.
During the Warring States period, King Wuling (340–295 BC) of the state of Zhao based in what is now Hebei and Shanxi provinces pursued an expansionist policy towards the region.

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
The Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220) ruled Shanxi as the province of Bingzhou.
In retaliation, the Xiongnu invaded what is now Shanxi province, where they defeated the Han forces at Baideng in 200 BC.

Jiedushi

military governormilitary commissionerfrontier military commanders
Shanxi was initially home to the jiedushi (commander) of Hedong, Li Cunxu, who overthrew the first of the Five Dynasties, Later Liang (907–923) to establish the second, Later Tang (923–936).
It controlled Ordos, Ningxia, and north Shanxi.

Li Cunxu

Emperor Zhuangzong of Later TangEmperor ZhuangzongZhuang Zong
Shanxi was initially home to the jiedushi (commander) of Hedong, Li Cunxu, who overthrew the first of the Five Dynasties, Later Liang (907–923) to establish the second, Later Tang (923–936).
His father was the late-Tang Dynasty major warlord Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit (河東, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi).

Wu Zetian

Empress WuEmpress Dowager WuEmpress Wu Zetian
Empress Wu Zetian, China's only female ruler, was born in Shanxi in 624.
The Wu family clan originated in Wenshui County, Bingzhou (an ancient name of the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi).

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsFive Dynasties periodFive Dynasties
During the first part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960), Shanxi supplied rulers of three of the Five Dynasties, as well as being the only one of the Ten Kingdoms located in northern China.
Though considered one of the ten kingdoms, the Northern Han was based in the traditional Shatuo stronghold of Shanxi.

Later Han (Five Dynasties)

Later HanLater Han dynastyHan
Another jiedushi of Hedong, Shi Jingtang, overthrew Later Tang to establish the third of the Five Dynasties, Later Jin, and yet another jiedushi of Hedong, Liu Zhiyuan, established the fourth of the Five Dynasties (Later Han) after the Khitans destroyed Later Jin, the third.
Liu Zhiyuan was military governor of Bingzhou, an area around Taiyuan in present-day Shanxi that had long been a stronghold of the sinicized Shatuo.

Sixteen Kingdoms

Sixteen Kingdoms Periodmultiple statesSixteen States
During the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304–439), several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi.
Cao Cao initiated the policy of settling Xiongnu nomads away from the frontier near Taiyuan in modern Shanxi province, where they would less likely to rebel.

Bing Province

BingBingzhouBìngzhōu
The Han Dynasty (206 BC – AD 220) ruled Shanxi as the province of Bingzhou.
Bingzhou covered roughly the areas around present-day Baoding, Hebei, and Taiyuan and Datong in Shanxi.

Pingyao

GutaoAncient City of Ping YaoPingyao Ancient City
The well-preserved city and UNESCO World Heritage site Pingyao shows many signs of its economic importance during the Qing dynasty.
Pingyao, officially Pingyao Ancient City, is a settlement in central Shanxi, China, famed for its importance in Chinese economic history and for its well-preserved Ming and Qing urban planning and architecture.