A report on Shanxi

Pagoda of Fogong Temple built in 1056
Yan Xishan, warlord of Shanxi during the Republic of China.
Chinese troops marching to defend the mountain pass at Xinkou.
The Shanxi Museum located on the west bank of Fen River in downtown Taiyuan.
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, Ying County, built in 1056.
A street in Pingyao.
Temple of Guandi in Datong.
Chenghuangshen (City God) Temple of Pingyao.
Western gate of a Temple of Heshen (River God) in Hequ, Xinzhou.

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

- Shanxi

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Hebei

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Northern province of China.

Northern province of China.

Nearly 1100-year-old Iron Lion of Cangzhou
Tricolor Duck-Shaped Cup, Tang Dynasty, unearthed from Anxin County
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei, built in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Hebei in 1936
Langyashan (Wolf Tooth Mountain), in Yi County
Section of the Great Wall of China at Jinshanling
Bashang Meadows in Fengning County
Downtown Shijiazhuang.
A building in downtown Zhangjiakou.
The Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei Province, built in AD 1045 during the Song dynasty
Hejian-styled donkey burger
A Ding ware bowl
The Xumi Pagoda of Zhengding, Hebei province, built in 636 AD during the Tang dynasty
View of the Chengde Mountain Resort

Hebei borders the provinces of Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast and Liaoning to the northeast, as well as the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north.

Taiyuan

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A sitting bodhisattva statue originally from Tianlongshan Grottoes, currently in Museum Rietberg, Zürich
Main battles involved for the establishment of Tang Dynasty originated from Taiyuan.
The hall of the holy mother in Jinci, constructed from 1023 to 1032 during the Song dynasty
Taiyuan Cathedral, photographed by Edouard Chavannes in 1907
Chinese soldiers and civilians celebrating the victory at Pingxingguan in 1937
Taiyuan Campaign
Satellite image of Taiyuan
Map of the region including Taiyuan (labeled as TʻAI-YÜAN (YANGKÜ) 太原) (AMS, 1956)
Taiyuan Riverside Sports Arena
A 1 route bus at Taiyuan
Taiyuan Airport
Taiyuan Railway Station
Tounao was created in Taiyuan.
Changfeng (长风) footbridge on Fen River and Shanxi Theater
Shanxi Folklore Museum courtyard with old Confucian temple
The twin towers inside the Yongzuo Temple.
Jinci Temple

Taiyuan (Mandarin pronunciation: ; also known as Bīng (并), Jìnyáng (晋阳)) is the capital and largest city of Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Henan

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Landlocked province of China, in the central part of the country.

Landlocked province of China, in the central part of the country.

Shang dynasty oracle bone script, the first form of Chinese writing
A late Eastern Han (25–220 AD) Chinese tomb mural showing lively scenes of a banquet, dance and music, acrobatics, and wrestling, from the Dahuting Han tombs, on the southern bank of the Suihe River in Xinmi, Henan
Longmen Grottoes (Mt. Longmen), Luoyang, Henan
Farmland in Xiping County, Zhumadian
White Horse Temple
Henan University

Its neighboring provinces are Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui, and Hubei.

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700

Tang dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907 AD, with an interregnum between 690 and 705.

Imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907 AD, with an interregnum between 690 and 705.

The empire during the reign of Wu Zetian, circa 700
Portrait painting of Emperor Gaozu (born Li Yuan, 566–635), the first Tang Emperor.
Empress Wu (Wu Zetian), the sole officially recognized empress regnant of China in more than two millennia. She first ruled through her husband and sons for almost three decades, then became emperor herself and ruled in her own right for another fifteen years.
Map of An Lushan Rebellion
The Leshan Giant Buddha, 71 m high; begun in 713, completed in 803
Nanchan Temple (Wutai), built during the late 8th century
Xumi Pagoda, built in 636
A late Tang mural commemorating the victory of General Zhang Yichao over the Tibetans in 848 AD, from Mogao cave 156
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang wearing the robes and hat of a scholar
Tang tomb figure of an official dressed in Hanfu, with a tall hat, wide-sleeved belted outer garment, and rectangular "kerchief" in front. A white inner gown hangs over his square shoes. He holds a tablet to his chest, a report to his superiors.
Civil service exam candidates gather around the wall where results had been posted. Artwork by Qiu Ying.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang giving audience to Zhang Guo, by Ren Renfa (1254–1327)
Emperor Taizong (r. 626–649) receives Gar Tongtsen Yülsung, ambassador of the Tibetan Empire, at his court; later copy of an original painted in 641 by Yan Liben (600–673)
The Chinese Tang dynasty during its greatest extension, controlling large parts of Central Asia.
Chinese officer of the Guard of Honour. Tomb of Princess Chang-le (长乐公主墓), Zhao Mausoleum, Shaanxi province. Tang Zhenguan year 17, i.e. 644 CE
A 10th-century mural painting in the Mogao Caves at Dunhuang showing monastic architecture from Mount Wutai, Tang dynasty; Japanese architecture of this period was influenced by Tang Chinese architecture
Tomb figure of mounted warrior similar to the one unearthed from the tomb of Crown Prince Li Chongrun
Tomb guardian (wushi yong), early 8th century
A bas relief of a soldier and the emperor's horse, Autumn Dew, with elaborate saddle and stirrups, designed by Yan Liben, from the tomb of Emperor Taizong c. 650
Illustration of Byzantine embassy to Tang Taizong 643 CE
Tang dynasty Kai Yuan Tong Bao (開元通寳) coin, first minted in 621 in Chang'an, a model for the Japanese 8th-century Wadōkaichin
Sancai glazed horse tomb figure
Tomb figure of a horse with a carefully sculpted saddle, decorated with leather straps and ornamental fastenings featuring eight-petalled flowers and apricot leaves.
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins. Found in the Astana Cemetery in Turfan.
Tomb Figure of a Sogdian merchant, 7th-century
A mural depicting a corner tower, most likely one of Chang'an, from the tomb of Prince Yide (d. 701) at the Qianling Mausoleum, dated 706
Map of Chang'an in Tang Dynasty
The bronze Jingyun Bell cast 711, height 247 cm high, weight 6,500 kg, now in the Xi'an Bell Tower
A Tang dynasty era copy of the preface to the Lantingji Xu poems composed at the Orchid Pavilion Gathering, originally attributed to Wang Xizhi (303–361 AD) of the Jin dynasty
A poem by Li Bai (701–762 AD), the only surviving example of Li Bai's calligraphy, housed in the Palace Museum in Beijing.
Calligraphy of Emperor Taizong on a Tang stele
A Tang dynasty sculpture of a Bodhisattva
An 8th-century silk wall scroll from Dunhuang, showing the paradise of Amitabha
A timber hall built in 857, located at the Buddhist Foguang Temple of Mount Wutai, Shanxi
A Tang sancai-glazed carved relief showing horseback riders playing polo
A late Tang or early Five Dynasties era silk painting on a banner depicting Guanyin and a female attendant in silk robes, from the Dunhuang caves, now in the British Museum
Palace ladies in a garden from a mural of Prince Li Xian's tomb in the Qianling Mausoleum, where Wu Zetian was also buried in 706
Tang era gilt-gold bowl with lotus and animal motifs
A Tang sancai-glazed lobed dish with incised decorations, 8th century
Tomb figure of a lady attendant, 7th- to 8th-century; during the Tang era, female hosts prepared feasts, tea parties, and played drinking games with their guests.
A rounded "offering plate" with design in "three colors" (sancai) glaze, 8th-century
A page of Lu Yu's The Classic of Tea
A square bronze mirror with a phoenix motif of gold and silver inlaid with lacquer, 8th-century
The Diamond Sutra, printed in 868, is the world's first widely printed book to include a specific date of printing.
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. c. 700. The whole set of star maps contains over 1,300 stars.
"Great Tang" (Dà Táng) in seal characters.
A Tang Dynasty sancai statuette of Sogdian musicians riding on a Bactrian camel, 723 AD, Xi'an.

Li Yuan, the founder of the Tang dynasty, was Duke of Tang and governor of Taiyuan, the capital of modern Shanxi, during the collapse of the Sui dynasty.

Palace Banquet by Anonymous, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

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Era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China.

Era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China.

Palace Banquet by Anonymous, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
Map of warlords ("jiedushi") in 902, before the end of Tang dynasty
Later Liang in 907 AD
Later Tang in 926 AD
Later Jin in 939 AD
Later Han in 949 AD
Later Zhou in 951 AD
Riverbank by Dong Yuan (932–962)
Summer Palace of Emperor Ming (明皇避暑宮) by Guo Zhongshu (929–977)
The Yueyang Tower by Li Sheng (fl. 908–925)
A painting depicting weiqi players by Zhou Wenju (fl. 942–961)
Song dynasty's conquest of China (960–979)

The administrations of the Five Dynasties and the early Song dynasty shared a pattern of being disproportionately drawn from the families of military governors in northern and northwestern China (Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi), their personal staff, and the bureaucrats who served in the capitals of the Five dynasties.

Dagger handle, Zhou dynasty

Warring States period

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Era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation.

Era in ancient Chinese history characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation.

Dagger handle, Zhou dynasty
Map showing states at the beginning of Warring States period of Zhou Dynasty in Chinese history
Tomb Guardian of Chu Kingdom (300 BC) held at Birmingham Museum of Art
A carved-jade dragon garment ornament from the Warring States period
A jade-carved huang with two dragon heads, Warring States, Shanghai Museum
The Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, a set of bronze bianzhong percussion instruments from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Hubei province (433 BC).
A Warring States bronze ding vessel with gold and silver inlay
A lacquerware painting from the Jingmen Tomb of the State of Chu (704–223 BC), depicting men wearing precursors to Hanfu (i.e. traditional silk dress) and riding in a two-horsed chariot
An iron sword and two bronze swords dated to the Warring States period
A bronze statue of a seated man, from the State of Yue, Warring States period
Seven Warring States late in the period Qin has expanded southwest, Chu north and Zhao northwest
Animated map of the Warring States period
Unification of Qin from 230 BC to 211 BC
A drinking cup carved from crystal, unearthed at Banshan, Hangzhou, Warring States period, Hangzhou Museum.
An iron sword of the Warring States.
A Chinese soldier's bronze helmet, from the State of Yan, dated to the Zhou Dynasty.
Model of a Warring States period traction trebuchet.
A horse-rider fighting a tiger, depicted on a gilded mirror discovered in Jincun, Luoyang.
Warring States swords and spearhead with patterns
A Chinese lacquerware drinking vessel (over wood), Warring States period, Honolulu Museum of Art
A nephrite pendant in the shape of a man wearing silk robes, 5th–3rd centuries BC, Warring States period, Arthur M. Sackler Museum
A painting on silk depicting a man riding a dragon from Zidanku Tomb no. 1 in Changsha, Hunan Province (5th–3rd century BC).
The Tsinghua Bamboo Slips, containing the world's earliest decimal multiplication table, dated 305 BC
Jue cup, ritual bronzes, the Warring States, Wine Vessel,
Leather horse armour from the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, c. 433 BC

The Three Jins located in the center on the Shanxi plateau were the three successor states of Jin. These were:

A map of the Western Han dynasty in 2 AD
Principalities and centrally-administered commanderies

Protectorate of the Western Regions (Tarim Basin)

Han dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China , established by Liu Bang (Emperor Gao) and ruled by the House of Liu.

Imperial dynasty of China , established by Liu Bang (Emperor Gao) and ruled by the House of Liu.

A map of the Western Han dynasty in 2 AD
Principalities and centrally-administered commanderies

Protectorate of the Western Regions (Tarim Basin)
Thirteen direct-controlled commanderies including the capital region (Yellow) and ten semi-autonomous kingdoms of the early periods, 195 BC
Belt Buckle with nomadic-inspired zoomorphic design, manufactured in China for the Xiongnu. Mercury-gilded bronze (a Chinese technique). North China, 3rd-2nd century BC.
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC
The ruins of a Han-dynasty watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, the eastern edge of the Silk Road.
These rammed earth ruins of a granary in Hecang Fortress, located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Western-Han-era Yumen Pass, were built during the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and significantly rebuilt during the Western Jin (280–316 AD).
Situation of warlords and peasant forces at the beginning of Eastern Han dynasty
Eastern Han inscriptions on a lead ingot, using barbarous Greek alphabet in the style of the Kushans, excavated in Shaanxi, 1st–2nd century AD
Preserved arrow, Western Han
A late Eastern Han (25–220 CE) Chinese tomb mural showing lively scenes of a banquet (yanyin 宴飲), dance and music (wuyue 舞樂), acrobatics (baixi 百戲), and wrestling (xiangbu 相撲), from the Dahuting Tomb, on the southern bank of the Siuhe River in Zhengzhou, Henan province (just west of Xi County)
A mural from an Eastern Han tomb at Zhucun (朱村), Luoyang, Henan province; the two figures in the foreground are playing liubo, with the playing mat between them, and the liubo game board to the side of the mat.
Brick Relief with Acrobatic Performance, Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE)
Detail of a mural showing two women wearing Hanfu silk robes, from the Dahuting Tomb of the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 CE), located in Zhengzhou, Henan
Han period inscribed bamboo-slips of Sun Bin's Art of War, unearthed in Yinque Mountain, Linyi, Shandong.
A fragment of the Xiping Stone Classics; these stone-carved Five Classics installed during Emperor Ling's reign along the roadside of the Imperial University (right outside Luoyang) were made at the instigation of Cai Yong (132–192 CE), who feared the Classics housed in the imperial library were being interpolated by University Academicians.
A silk banner from Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province. It was draped over the coffin of Lady Dai (d. 168 BCE), wife of the Marquess Li Cang (利蒼) (d. 186 BCE), chancellor for the Kingdom of Changsha.
A part of a Daoist manuscript, ink on silk, 2nd century BCE, Han Dynasty, unearthed from Mawangdui tomb 3rd, Changsha, Hunan Province.
An Eastern-Han bronze statuette of a mythical chimera (qilin), 1st century CE
A scene of historic paragons of filial piety conversing with one another, Chinese painted artwork on a lacquered basketwork box, excavated from an Eastern-Han tomb of what was the Chinese Lelang Commandery in Korean Peninsula.
A rubbing of a Han pictorial stone showing an ancestral worship hall (cítáng 祠堂)
Animalistic guardian spirits of day and night wearing Chinese robes, Han dynasty paintings on ceramic tile; Michael Loewe writes that the hybrid of man and beast in art and religious beliefs predated the Han and remained popular during the first half of Western Han and the Eastern Han.
The Gansu Flying Horse, depicted in full gallop, bronze sculpture, h 34.5 cm. Wuwei, Gansu, China, AD 25–220
A mural showing chariots and cavalry, from the Dahuting Tomb (Chinese: 打虎亭漢墓, Pinyin: Dahuting Han mu) of the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD), located in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China
Gold coins of the Eastern Han dynasty
A Han-dynasty iron ji (polearm) and iron dagger
A gilded bronze oil lamp in the shape of a kneeling female servant, dated 2nd century BC, found in the tomb of Dou Wan, wife of Liu Sheng, King of Zhongshan; its sliding shutter allows for adjustments in the direction and brightness in light while it also traps smoke within the body.
An array of bronze bells, Western Han dynasty
Ornamental belt buckle, decorated with Chinese mythical creatures. Chiseled and hammered gold, late Han period.
The physical exercise chart; a painting on silk depicting the practice of Qigong Taiji; unearthed in 1973 in Hunan Province, China, from the 2nd-century BC Western Han burial site of Mawangdui, Tomb Number 3.
A pair of stone-carved que (闕) located at the temple of Mount Song in Dengfeng. (Eastern Han dynasty.)
A pair of Han period stone-carved que (闕) located at Babaoshan, Beijing.
A stone-carved pillar-gate, or que (闕), 6 m (20 ft) in total height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya'an. (Eastern Han dynasty.){{sfnp|Liu|2002|p=55}}
An Eastern-Han vaulted tomb chamber at Luoyang made of small bricks
A Han-dynasty pottery model of two men operating a winnowing machine with a crank handle and a tilt hammer used to pound grain.
A modern replica of Zhang Heng's seismometer
An early Western Han dynasty silk map found in tomb 3 of Mawangdui, depicting the Kingdom of Changsha and Kingdom of Nanyue in southern China (note: the south direction is oriented at the top).
An Eastern Han dynasty pottery boat model with a steering rudder at the stern and anchor at the bow.

In retaliation, the Xiongnu invaded what is now Shanxi province, where they defeated the Han forces at Baideng in 200 BC. After negotiations, the heqin agreement in 198 BC nominally held the leaders of the Xiongnu and the Han as equal partners in a royal marriage alliance, but the Han were forced to send large amounts of tribute items such as silk clothes, food, and wine to the Xiongnu.

Li Cunxu

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The ruling prince of the Former Jin dynasty (908–923) and later became the founding emperor of the Later Tang dynasty (923–926) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history.

The ruling prince of the Former Jin dynasty (908–923) and later became the founding emperor of the Later Tang dynasty (923–926) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of Chinese history.

His father was the late-Tang Dynasty major warlord Li Keyong the military governor of Hedong Circuit (河東, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi).

Jin and other states in 5th centuryBC

Jin (Chinese state)

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Jin and other states in 5th centuryBC
Duke Wen of Jin Recovering His State attributed to Li Tang, 1140 (Metropolitan Museum of Art)

Jin (, Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.

Shaanxi

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Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China.

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China.

Shaanxi People's Government
Shaanxi cuisine
Terracotta Army
Education Department of Shaanxi Province
Shaanxi Science and Technology Museum
Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Weinan.
Guangren Temple of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition in Xi'an.
Road to the stupa of the Famen Temple (Chinese Buddhist).
Temple of Xuanyuan in Huangling, Yan'an.

Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW) and Inner Mongolia (N).