Shaped charge

hollow chargeMunroe effectshaped-chargedemolition chargeshaped chargeshollow-chargeshapedHEATLinear shaped chargescone shape
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.wikipedia
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High-explosive anti-tank warhead

HEAThigh explosive anti-tankhigh-explosive anti-tank
Contrary to a widespread misconception (possibly resulting from the acronym HEAT, short for high-explosive anti-tank warhead) the shaped charge does not depend in any way on heating or melting for its effectiveness; that is, the jet from a shaped charge does not melt its way through armor, as its effect is purely kinetic in nature – however the process does create significant heat and often has a significant secondary incendiary effect after penetration. The common term in military terminology for shaped-charge warheads is high-explosive anti-tank warhead (HEAT).
A high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead is a type of shaped charge explosive that uses the Munroe effect to penetrate thick tank armor.

Charles Edward Munroe

Charles E. MunroeCharles Munroe
The Munroe effect is named after Charles E. Munroe, who discovered it in 1888.
Charles Edward Munroe (24 May 1849 – 7 December 1938) was an American chemist, discoverer of the Munroe effect, and chair of the Department of Chemistry at the George Washington University.

Bazooka

M20 Super Bazookabazookas3.5-inch bazooka
It was this article that at last revealed to the general public how the fabled Bazooka actually worked against armored vehicles during WWII. During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
The development of the bazooka involved the development of two specific lines of technology: the rocket-powered weapon, and the shaped-charge warhead.

PIAT

Projector, Infantry, Anti TankBritish PIATPIAT guns
During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
The PIAT was based on the spigot mortar system, and projected (launched) a 2.5 pound (1.1 kg) shaped charge bomb using a cartridge in the tail of the projectile.

Panzerwurfmine

thrown shaped charges
During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
The Panzerwurfmine (abbreviated to PWM) was a shaped charge hand-thrown anti-tank grenade used by Luftwaffe ground troops in World War II.

Mistel

flying bombJunkers EF 101Mistel-Gespann
During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
The most successful of these used a modified Junkers Ju 88 bomber as the Mistel, with the entire nose-located crew compartment replaced by a specially designed nose filled with a large load of explosives, formed into a shaped charge.

Panzerfaust

Panzerfaust 30FaustpatronePanzerfaust 100
During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
The following weapon model of the Panzerfaust family, the so-called Faustpatrone klein, 30 m ("small fist-cartridge") had a total weight of 3.2 kg (7.1 lb) and a total length of 98.5 cm (38¾ in); its projectile had a length of 36 cm (14¼ in) and a warhead diameter of 10 cm (4 in); it carried a shaped charge of 400 g (14 oz) of a 50:50 mix of TNT and tri-hexogen.

Anti-tank warfare

anti-tankanti-tank weaponanti-armor
The development of shaped charges revolutionized anti-tank warfare.
Both those weapon systems use a tandem warhead where the first stage of the tandem warhead activates the reactive armor, and the second stage of the tandem warhead defeats the shell armor by means of a High Explosive Anti Tank (HEAT) shaped charge.

RPG-43

RPG-43 anti-tank grenade
During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
The RPG-43 used a shaped charge HEAT warhead, whereas the RPG-40 used the simpler HE (high explosive) warhead.

Panzerschreck

88 rakh/B 54anti-tank weaponsbazooka
During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
The weapon was shoulder-launched and fired a fin-stabilized rocket with a shaped-charge warhead.

Henry Mohaupt

Henry Hans Mohaupt
) Meanwhile, Henry Hans Mohaupt, a chemical engineer in Switzerland, had independently developed a shaped-charge munition in 1935, which was demonstrated to the Swiss, French, British, and U.S. militaries.
He first demonstrated and exhibited shaped charge warheads internationally before the Second World War.

Composite armour

composite armorcompositecomposite ceramic and metal matrices
The figure is for basic steel plate, not for the composite armor, reactive armor, or other types of modern armor.
The capability of most materials for defeating HEAT follows the "density law", which states that the penetration of shaped charge jets is proportional to the square root of the shaped charge liner density (typically copper) divided by the square root of the target density.

Armour

armorarmoredArmoured
Various types are used to cut and form metal, initiate nuclear weapons, penetrate armor, and perforate wells in the oil and gas industry.
Tank armour has progressed from the Second World War armour forms, now incorporating not only harder composites, but also reactive armour designed to defeat shaped charges.

Warhead

warheadsCUexplosive payload
The common term in military terminology for shaped-charge warheads is high-explosive anti-tank warhead (HEAT).

RPG-6

During World War II, shaped-charge munitions were developed by Germany (Panzerschreck, Panzerfaust, Panzerwurfmine, Mistel), Britain (PIAT, Beehive charge), the Soviet Union (RPG-43, RPG-6), and the U.S. (bazooka).
It operated on the "Munroe effect" principle, in which a metal-lined cone-shaped explosive charge would generate a focused jet of hot metal that could penetrate armor-plate.

Building implosion

implodedimplosioncontrolled implosion
In non-military applications shaped charges are used in explosive demolition of buildings and structures, in particular for cutting through metal piles, columns and beams and for boring holes.
Linear shaped charges are used to sever steel supports.

Land mine

minefieldlandminelandmines
HEAT warheads are frequently used in anti-tank guided missiles, unguided rockets, gun-fired projectiles (both spun and unspun), rifle grenades, land mines, bomblets, torpedoes, and various other weapons.
More modern anti-tank mines use shaped charges to focus and increase the armor penetration of the explosives.

Anti-tank guided missile

anti-tank missileATGManti-tank guided missiles
HEAT warheads are frequently used in anti-tank guided missiles, unguided rockets, gun-fired projectiles (both spun and unspun), rifle grenades, land mines, bomblets, torpedoes, and various other weapons.
Most modern ATGMs have shaped charge HEAT warheads, designed specifically for penetrating tank armor.

Torpedo

torpedoeshoming torpedotorpedoed
HEAT warheads are frequently used in anti-tank guided missiles, unguided rockets, gun-fired projectiles (both spun and unspun), rifle grenades, land mines, bomblets, torpedoes, and various other weapons.
In lightweight antisubmarine torpedoes designed to penetrate submarine hulls, a shaped charge can be used.

Slat armor

cage armorslat armourcage armour
Skirting should not be confused with cage armor which is used to damage the fusing system of RPG-7 projectiles.
It takes the form of a rigid slatted metal grid fitted around key sections of the vehicle, which disrupts the shaped charge of the warhead by either crushing it, preventing optimal detonation from occurring, or by damaging the fuzing mechanism, preventing detonation outright.

Battle of Fort Eben-Emael

Fort Eben-Emaeldramatic assaultsuccessful raid
One of the earliest uses of shaped charges was by German glider-borne troops against the Belgian Fort Eben-Emael in 1940.
Primitive unlined shaped charges were affixed to the turrets and detonated, but whilst they shook the turrets they did not destroy them, and other airborne troops were forced to climb the turrets and smash the gun barrels.

RDX

hexogencyclotrimethylenetrinitraminecyclonite
Other common high-performance explosives are RDX-based compositions, again either as PBXs or mixtures with TNT (to form Composition B and the Cyclotols) or wax (Cyclonites).
The demolition of the Jamestown Bridge in the U.S. state of Rhode Island was one instance where RDX shaped charges were used to remove the span.

Cluster munition

cluster bombcluster bombssubmunition
HEAT warheads are frequently used in anti-tank guided missiles, unguided rockets, gun-fired projectiles (both spun and unspun), rifle grenades, land mines, bomblets, torpedoes, and various other weapons.
The submunitions themselves may also be multi-purpose, such as combining a shaped charge, to attack armour, with a fragmenting case, to attack infantry, material, and light vehicles.

Reactive armour

explosive reactive armourexplosive reactive armorreactive armor
The figure is for basic steel plate, not for the composite armor, reactive armor, or other types of modern armor.
It is most effective in protecting against shaped charges and specially hardened kinetic energy penetrators.

Octol

It is normally compounded with a few percent of some type of plastic binder, such as in the polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14, or with another less-sensitive explosive, such as TNT, with which it forms Octol.
The applications of Octol are generally military; e.g., shaped charges and warheads used in guided missiles and submunitions.