Shatt al-Arab

Shatt-al-ArabArvand RudShatt al ArabArvand RiverArvandBlind TigrisShatt Al Basra BridgeShatt El ArabAravand-rudArvand Rood
Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.wikipedia
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Euphrates

Euphrates RiverRiver EuphratesFırat River
Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
Originating in the Armenian Highlands (eastern Turkey), the Euphrates flows through Syria and Iraq to join the Tigris in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties into the Persian Gulf.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
Two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf.

Basra

BasrahBasra, Iraqal-Basrah
It varies in width from about 232 m at Basra to 800 m at its mouth.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah) is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab.

Persian Gulf

GulfGulf regionPersian Gulf region
The southern end of the river constitutes the border between Iraq and Iran down to the mouth of the river as it discharges into the Persian Gulf.
The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.

Tigris

Tigris RiverRiver TigrisDijla
Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.
Finally, the Tigris joins the Euphrates near al-Qurnah to form the Shatt-al-Arab.

Karun

Karun RiverKarounDujayl
The Karun River, a tributary which joins the waterway from the Iranian side, deposits large amounts of silt into the river; this necessitates continuous dredging to keep it navigable.
It rises in the Zard Kuh mountains of the Bakhtiari district in the Zagros Range, receiving many tributaries, such as the Dez and the Kuhrang, before passing through the capital of the Khuzestan Province of Iran, the city of Ahvaz before emptying to its mouth into Arvand Rud (Shatt al-Arab).

Al-Qurnah

QurnaAl QurnahAl-Qurna
Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq. Shatt al-Arab river is made by the confluence of the Tigris and Eurphates river at Al-Qurnah and continues to end up at the Persian gulf south of the city of Al-Faw.
Qurna (Arabic for connection/joint) is located at the confluence point of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to form the Shatt al-Arab.

Al-Faw

Al FawFaoFao, Iraq
Shatt al-Arab river is made by the confluence of the Tigris and Eurphates river at Al-Qurnah and continues to end up at the Persian gulf south of the city of Al-Faw.
Al-Fāw (ٱلْفَاو; sometimes transliterated as Fao) is a port town on Al-Faw Peninsula in Iraq near the Shatt al-Arab and the Persian Gulf.

Confluence

confluentconfluxsangam
In Middle Persian literature and the Shahnameh (written between c. 977 and 1010 AD), the name اروند Arvand is used for the Tigris, the confluent of the Shatt al-Arab.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
The southern end of the river constitutes the border between Iraq and Iran down to the mouth of the river as it discharges into the Persian Gulf.
The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where the country borders the mouth of the Arvand river.

Joint Operation Arvand

Iraq threatened war over the Iranian move, but on 24 April 1969, an Iranian tanker escorted by Iranian warships (Joint Operation Arvand) sailed down the Shatt al-Arab, and Iraq—being the militarily weaker state—did nothing.
The Joint Operation Arvand (, more known by its Persian acronym AMA, عما) was a show of force operation orchestrated in April 1969 by the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces following Iraqi claim for the sovereign right to Shatt al-Arab/Arvand Rud and threatening to block passage of vessels unless they fly Iraqi flag.

1975 Algiers Agreement

Algiers AccordAlgiers Agreementa press conference in Algiers
In March 1975, Iraq signed the Algiers Accord in which it recognized a series of straight lines closely approximating the thalweg (deepest channel) of the waterway, as the official border, in exchange for which Iran ended its support of the Iraqi Kurds.
The 1975 Algiers Agreement (commonly known as the Algiers Accord, sometimes as the Algiers Declaration) was an agreement between Iran and Iraq to settle their border disputes and conflicts (such as the Shatt al-Arab, known as Arvand Rud in Iran), and it served as basis for the bilateral treaties signed on 13 June and 26 December 1975.

Iran–Iraq War

Iran-Iraq warTanker WarIraq-Iran War
At the end of the Iran–Iraq War, both sides agreed to once again treat the Algiers Accord as binding.
The war also followed a long history of border disputes, and Iraq planned to annex the oil-rich Khuzestan Province and the east bank of the Arvand Rud (Shatt al-Arab).

Al-Faw Peninsula

Al Faw PeninsulaFao PeninsulaFaw Peninsula
When the Al-Faw peninsula was captured by the Iranians in 1986, Iraq's shipping activities virtually came to a halt and had to be diverted to other Arab ports, such as Kuwait and even Aqaba, Jordan. The British Royal Marines staged an amphibious assault to capture the key oil installations and shipping docks located at Umm Qasr on the al-Faw peninsula at the onset of the conflict.
The marshy peninsula is 20 km southeast of Iraq's second largest city, Basra, and is part of a delta for the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud) river, formed by the confluence of the major Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

Abadan, Iran

AbadanAbbadanAbadanian
The 1937 treaty recognized the Iranian-Iraqi border as along the low-water mark on the eastern side of the Shatt al-Arab except at Abadan and Khorramshahr where the frontier ran along the thalweg (the deep water line) which gave Iraq control of almost the entire waterway; provided that all ships using the Shatt al-Arab fly the Iraqi flag and have an Iraqi pilot, and required Iran to pay tolls to Iraq whenever its ships used the Shatt al-Arab.
It lies on Abadan Island (68 km long, 3–19 km or 2–12 miles wide), the island is bounded in the west by the Arvand waterway and to the east by the Bahmanshir outlet of the Karun River (the Arvand Rood), 53 km from the Persian Gulf, near the Iran–Iraq border.

Ba'athist Iraq

IraqBaathist IraqIraqi
Under Saddam Hussein, Baathist Iraq claimed the entire waterway up to the Iranian shore as its territory.
A quick victory would restore Iraq's control over all of Shatt al-Arab, an area which Iraq had lost to Iran in 1975.

Khorramshahr

KhoramshahrMohammerahKhorramshar
The 1937 treaty recognized the Iranian-Iraqi border as along the low-water mark on the eastern side of the Shatt al-Arab except at Abadan and Khorramshahr where the frontier ran along the thalweg (the deep water line) which gave Iraq control of almost the entire waterway; provided that all ships using the Shatt al-Arab fly the Iraqi flag and have an Iraqi pilot, and required Iran to pay tolls to Iraq whenever its ships used the Shatt al-Arab.
The city extends to the right bank of the Arvand Rud waterway near its confluence with the Haffar arm of the Karun river.

Thalweg

talwegcentre of the rivermiddle of the main flow
A protocol between the Ottomans and the Persians was signed in Istanbul in 1913, which declared that the Ottoman-Persian frontier run along the thalweg, but World War I canceled all plans.
The precise drawing of river boundaries has been important on countless occasions; notable examples include the Shatt al-Arab between Iraq and Iran, the Danube in central Europe, the Kasikili/Sedudu Island dispute between Namibia and Botswana, settled by the International Court of Justice in 1999, and the 2004 dispute settlement under the UN Law of the Sea concerning the offshore boundary between Guyana and Suriname, in which the thalweg of the Courantyne River played a role in the ruling.

2004 Iranian seizure of Royal Navy personnel

took Royal Navy personnel prisonerseized eight British sailorstwo days
The 2004 Iranian seizure of Royal Navy personnel took place in the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud in Persian) waterway on 21 June.

Saddam Hussein

SaddamSadam HusseinSadaam Hussein
Under Saddam Hussein, Baathist Iraq claimed the entire waterway up to the Iranian shore as its territory.
After Khomeini gained power, skirmishes between Iraq and revolutionary Iran occurred for ten months over the sovereignty of the disputed Shatt al-Arab waterway, which divides the two countries.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Shah of IranShahMohammad Reza Shah
Under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the late 60s, Iran developed a strong military and took a more assertive stance in the Near East.
He resented the internationally recognised Iran-Iraq border on the Shatt al-Arab river, which a 1937 treaty fixed on the low watermark on the Iranian side, giving Iraq control of most of the Shatt al-Arab.

2007 Iranian arrest of Royal Navy personnel

2007 Iranian seizure of Royal Navy personnelFaye Turneytook prisoner
While moving along the Shatt al-Arab waterway, the merchantman had aroused the suspicion of a Royal Navy helicopter.

Umm Qasr

Um QasrUm QasarUmm al Qasr
The British Royal Marines staged an amphibious assault to capture the key oil installations and shipping docks located at Umm Qasr on the al-Faw peninsula at the onset of the conflict.
It was intended to serve as Iraq's only "deep water" port, reducing the country's dependence on the disputed Shatt al-Arab waterway that marks the border with Iran.

Wildlife of Iraq

Fauna of Iraq
Iraqi coastal waters boast a living coral reef, covering an area of 28 km 2 in the Persian Gulf, at the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab river (29.61667°N, -48.8°W).

River

riverineriparianleft bank
Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.