Shifta War

insurgentsshifta menace
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya (a region that is and has historically been almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis ) attempted to secede from Kenya join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia.wikipedia
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Kenya

KenyanRepublic of KenyaKEN
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya (a region that is and has historically been almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis ) attempted to secede from Kenya join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia.
Concurrently, the Kenyan army fought the Shifta War against ethnic Somali rebels inhabiting the Northern Frontier District, who wanted to join their kin in the Somali Republic to the north.

General Service Unit (Kenya)

General Service UnitGeneral Service Unit (GSU)GS Unit
The Kenyan counter-insurgency General Service Units forced civilians into "protected villages" (essentially concentration camps) as well as killing many livestock kept by the pastoralist Somalis.
Having been in existence since the late 1940s, the GSU has fought in a number of conflicts in and around Kenya, including the 1963 – 1969 Shifta War and the 1982 Kenyan coup.

Greater Somalia

Pan-Somalismpan-Somalistannex
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya (a region that is and has historically been almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis ) attempted to secede from Kenya join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia.
The pursuit of this goal has led to conflict: Somalia engaged after World War II in the Ogaden War with Ethiopia over the Ogaden region, and supported Somali insurgents against Kenya.

Kenya Defence Forces

Kenyan militaryKenyan ArmyKenyan Armed Forces
The province thus entered a period of running skirmishes between the Kenyan Army and Somali-backed Northern Frontier District Liberation Movement (NFDLM) insurgents.
Between 1963 and 1967, Kenya fought the Shifta War against Somali residents who sought union with their kin in the Somali Republic to the north.

Somalis in Kenya

Somaliethnic Somalisethnic Somali
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya (a region that is and has historically been almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis ) attempted to secede from Kenya join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia.
In response, the Kenyan government enacted a number of repressive measures designed to frustrate their efforts in what came to be known as the Shifta War.

Villagization

protected villagesvillagisation
The Kenyan counter-insurgency General Service Units forced civilians into "protected villages" (essentially concentration camps) as well as killing many livestock kept by the pastoralist Somalis.
The British colonial government in Kenya used a similar approach to exert control over Kikuyu tribespeople during the Mau Mau Uprising, which in turn inspired the "Manyatta" strategy of independent Kenya against ethnic Somalis during the Shifta War.

Jomo Kenyatta

KenyattaMzee Jomo KenyattaPresident Kenyatta
One immediate consequence of the Shifta insurgency was the signing in 1964 of a Mutual Defense Treaty between Jomo Kenyatta's administration and the government of Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie.
He promoted reconciliation between the country's indigenous ethnic groups and its European minority, although his relations with the Kenyan Indians were strained and Kenya's army clashed with Somali separatists in the North Eastern Province during the Shifta War.

Somali Republic

SomaliaRepublic of Somalia1960 independence
The war ended in 1967 when Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Prime Minister of the Somali Republic, signed a ceasefire with Kenya at the Arusha Conference on October 23, 1967.
These policies culminated in the Shifta War between Somali rebels and the Kenyan police and army.

Shifta

Ethiopian guerrillas
The Kenyan government named the conflict "shifta", after the Somali word for "bandit", as part of a propaganda effort.

Sakuye people

Sakuye
The Boran and the Sakuye were well-nourished and well-clothed and, though a pastoral life is always physically demanding, people led dignified and satisfying life... They had clearly been prospering for some years.
Most of their livestock was killed by government forces during the Shifta War (1963–1967), reducing many Sakuye to poverty.

Siad Barre

Mohamed Siad BarreMuhammad Siad BarreBarre
After a 1969 coup in Somalia, the new military leader Mohamed Siad Barre, abolished this MoU as he claimed it was corrupt and unsatisfactory.

Wagalla massacre

Wagala MassacreWagalla
A particularly violent incident referred to as the Wagalla Massacre took place in 1984, when the Kenyan provincial commissioner ordered security forces to gather 5,000 men of the Somali Degodia clan onto the airstrip at Wagalla, Wajir, open fire on them, and then attempt to hide their bodies.

Secession

secedesecededsecessionist
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya (a region that is and has historically been almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis ) attempted to secede from Kenya join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia.

North Eastern Province (Kenya)

North Eastern ProvinceNorthern Frontier DistrictNorth Eastern
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya (a region that is and has historically been almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis ) attempted to secede from Kenya join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia. From 1926 to 1934, the NFD, comprising the current North Eastern Province and the districts of Marsabit, Moyale and Isiolo, was closed by British colonial authorities.

Somali language

SomalisomAf Soomaali
The Kenyan government named the conflict "shifta", after the Somali word for "bandit", as part of a propaganda effort.

Counter-insurgency

counterinsurgencycounter insurgencyCOIN
The Kenyan counter-insurgency General Service Units forced civilians into "protected villages" (essentially concentration camps) as well as killing many livestock kept by the pastoralist Somalis.

Pastoralism

pastoralistpastoralistspastoral
The Kenyan counter-insurgency General Service Units forced civilians into "protected villages" (essentially concentration camps) as well as killing many livestock kept by the pastoralist Somalis.

Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal

Mohamed Haji Ibrahim EgalEgalIbrahim Egal
The war ended in 1967 when Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Prime Minister of the Somali Republic, signed a ceasefire with Kenya at the Arusha Conference on October 23, 1967.

Transhumance

transhumantsetermountain farm
The war and violent clampdowns by the Kenyan government caused large-scale disruption to the way of life in the district, resulting in a slight shift from pastoralist and transhumant lifestyles to sedentary, urban lifestyles.

Non-governmental organization

NGONGOsnon-governmental organisation
Government records put the official death toll in the thousands but NGO's say more than 10,000 lives were lost.

Jubaland

JubaJubbalandJubba
The Northern Frontier District (NFD) came into being in 1925, when it was carved out of the Jubaland region in present-day southern Somalia.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
The Northern Frontier District (NFD) came into being in 1925, when it was carved out of the Jubaland region in present-day southern Somalia.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
At the time under British colonial administration, the northern half of Jubaland was ceded to Italy as a reward for the Italians' support of the Allies during World War I.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
At the time under British colonial administration, the northern half of Jubaland was ceded to Italy as a reward for the Italians' support of the Allies during World War I.

Marsabit County

MarsabitMarsabit District
From 1926 to 1934, the NFD, comprising the current North Eastern Province and the districts of Marsabit, Moyale and Isiolo, was closed by British colonial authorities.