Shneur Zalman of Liadi

Writing sample from the Brockhaus and Efron Jewish Encyclopedia (1906–1913)
The French retreat from Moscow
Kozienice Synagogue in Poland. Some Polish Hasidic leaders supported Napoleon
Petropavlovski fortress in St. Petersburg
New guesthouse next to his Ohel
His grave in Hadiach
The Tanya, a classic text of Hasidic philosophy
1875 edition of the Shulchan Aruch HaRav

Influential rabbi and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi in the Russian Empire.

- Shneur Zalman of Liadi

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Edition of the Tanya printed in Fayid from 1974. The 7th leader of Chabad encouraged new printings to be made in remote places.

The Tanya (תניא) is an early work of Hasidic philosophy, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of Chabad Hasidism, first published in 1796.

Hasidic Judaism

Jewish religious group that arose as a spiritual revival movement in the territory of contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe.

The Kaliver Rebbe, Holocaust survivor, inspiring his court on the festival of Sukkot
Kvitel requests for blessing piled on the graves of the last Lubavitcher Rebbes
Hasidic family in Borough Park, Brooklyn. The man is wearing a shtreimel, and either a bekishe or a rekel. The woman is wearing a wig, called a sheitel, as she is forbidden to show her hair in public.
Rabbi Moshe Leib Rabinovich, Munkacser Rebbe, wearing a kolpik
The Dorohoi Rebbe in his traditional rabbinical Sabbath garb
Sculpture of the Hasidic movement's celebration of spirituality on the Knesset Menorah
Israel ben Eliezer's autograph
Shivchei HaBesht (Praises of the Baal Shem Tov), the first compilation of Hasidic hagiographic storytelling, was printed from manuscripts in 1815
Palace of the Ruzhin dynasty, known for its "royal" mannerism, in Sadhora.
Belzer Rebbe Aharon Rokeach (depicted 1934), who was hidden from the Nazis and smuggled out of Europe.

Rachel Elior quoted Shneur Zalman of Liadi, in his commentary Torah Or on Genesis 28:21, who wrote that "this is the purpose of Creation, from Infinity to Finitude, so it may be reversed from the state of Finite to that of Infinity".


For other uses of "Chabad", see Chabad (disambiguation).

Group picture in Crown Heights, Brooklyn
Chabad newspaper, Huh-Ukh (1911)
Schneersohn Family
A Lag BaOmer parade in front of Chabad headquarters at 770 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, in 1987
President Ronald Reagan receives menorah from the "American Friends of Lubavitch," White House, 1984
Map of countries with Chabad-Lubavitch emissaries
Russia's Chief Rabbi Berel Lazar (left) speaks with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 28 December 2016
Chabad Lubavitch Mitzvah tank in Golders Green, London
Picture of room '302'

Founded in 1775 by Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the name "Chabad" is an acronym formed from three Hebrew words—Chochmah, Binah, Da'at (the first three sephirot of the kabbalistic Tree of Life) : "Wisdom, Understanding, and Knowledge"—which represent the intellectual and kabbalistic underpinnings of the movement.


Slaughtering of certain mammals and birds for food according to kashrut.

A 15th-century depiction of shechita and bedikah.
Slaughtering poultry according to religious rules, Shalom Koboshvili, 1940
Shechita permit from Rome, 1762. Today in the Jewish Museum of Switzerland's collection.
This chalaf belonging to the Jewish Museum of Switzerland dates back to the mid-18th century.
Shechita slaughter of a chicken

Shneur Zalman of Liadi, fearing that Sabbateans were scratching the knives in a way not detectable by normal people, introduced the Hasidic hallaf (hasidishe hallaf).

Shulchan Aruch HaRav

1895 edition of the Shulchan Aruch HaRav

The Shulchan Aruch HaRav (שולחן ערוך הרב; also romanized Shulkhan Arukh HaRav) is especially a record of prevailing halakha by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745–1812), known during his lifetime as HaRav (Hebrew for "The Rabbi") and as the first Rebbe (Yiddish for "rabbi") of Chabad.


Jewish prayer book containing a set order of daily prayers.

The oldest Siddur in the world. From the 9th century
Nusach Ashkenaz Siddur from Irkutsk, Russia, printed in 1918
A siddur created on the occasion of a wedding in 1971, Oświęcim. Collection of the Auschwitz Jewish Center
Variety of popular Siddurim.
1803 Sephardic prayer book, in the Jewish Museum of Switzerland’s collection.
Kol Haneshamah: Shabbat Vehagim

In 1803, Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi compiled an authoritative siddur from the sixty siddurim that he checked for compliance with Hebrew grammar, Jewish law, and Kabbalah: some call this siddur "Nusach Ari", and is used by Lubavitch Hasidim.


Spiritual leader in the Hasidic movement, and the personalities of its dynasties.

Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn of Lubavitch
The Bostoner Rebbe feert tish, lit. "runs [a] table" in his synagogue in Beitar Illit

The Kabbalist — This role, also known in Hebrew as the Ba'al M'kubal, involved expertise in the theoretical teachings of Jewish mysticism. Examples cited include Shneur Zalman of Lyady (the founder of Chabad Hasidism), Yisroel Hopstein (the Maggid of Kozhnitz), and Isaac of Komarno.


Medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh).

16th-century depiction of Rashi
Rashi Synagogue, Worms
Exterior of Rashi's Synagogue, Worms, Germany
Monument in memory of Rashi in Troyes, France. Sculptor: Raymond Moretti, 1992.
A modern translation of Rashi's commentary on the Chumash, published by Artscroll
Title page of an English translation of Rashi's Commentary on the Pentateuch.
Raschihaus, Jewish Museum, Worms, Germany.
The complete Hebrew alphabet in Rashi script [right to left].

Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi wrote that "Rashi's commentary on Torah is the 'wine of Torah'. It opens the heart and uncovers one's essential love and fear of G-d."

Vilna Gaon

Talmudist, halakhist, kabbalist, and the foremost leader of misnagdic (non-hasidic) Jewry of the past few centuries.

Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon (Zalkind, Ber)
Elijah Ben Solomon, the Vilna Gaon
The Vilna Gaon monument at the site of the Great Synagogue of Vilna
The Vilna Gaon synagogue in Sha'arei Hesed, Jerusalem

In 1781, when the Hasidim renewed their proselytizing work under the leadership of their Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (the "Ba'al Ha'tanya"), the Gaon excommunicated them again, declaring them to be heretics with whom no pious Jew might intermarry.

Dov Ber of Mezeritch

Disciple of Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (the Baal Shem Tov), the founder of Hasidic Judaism, and was chosen as his successor to lead the early movement.

Title page of Maggid Devarav L'Yaakov (Koretz, 1781 edition).
Mausoleum in Hanipol where he is buried alongside Zusha of Hanipol, Reb Leib HaKohen

His inner circle of disciples, known as the Chevraia Kadisha ("Holy Brotherhood"), included Rabbis Avraham HaMalach (his son), Nachum of Czernobyl, Elimelech of Lizhensk, Zusha of Hanipol, Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev, Boruch of Medzhybizh, Aharon (HaGadol) of Karlin, Chaim Chaykl of Amdur, Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk, Shmuel Shmelke of Nikolsburg, Shlomo Flam (the Lutzker Maggid) and Shneur Zalman of Liadi.