Shopping mall

12-storey floor of retail area inside of Berjaya Times Square shopping mall in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Dayton Arcade in the 1920s
Belz Factory Outlet Mall, an abandoned shopping mall in Allen, Texas, United States
The former Camp Snoopy Amusement park before it was Nickelodeon Universe at the center of the Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota, the largest shopping mall in the United States
The 31 story tall ISQUARE vertical mall.
Express Avenue Chennai, India
Shopping arcade in Tokyo, Japan
Abasto de Buenos Aires Argentina
Galerías Pacífico Argentina
Chadstone Shopping Centre Australia
Shopping City Süd Austria
Jamuna Future Park Bangladesh
Bashundhara City Bangladesh
Iguatemi Fortaleza Shopping Brazil
Riomar Recife Brazil
Paradise Center Bulgaria
Toronto Eaton Centre Canada
West Edmonton Mall Canada
Costanera Center Chile
South China Mall China
New Century Global Center China
Centro Comercial Santafé Colombia
Viru Keskus Estonia
Ideapark Finland
Inorbit Mall India
Phoenix Marketcity India
Gandaria City Indonesia
Mal Taman Anggrek Indonesia
Tunjungan Plaza Indonesia
Sunway Pyramid Malaysia
AEON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre Malaysia
Artz Pedregal Mexico
Centro Santa Fe Mexico
Morocco Mall Morocco
Lucky One Mall Pakistan
Emporium Mall Pakistan
MEGA Family Shopping Centre Russia
VivoCity Singapore
Northpoint City Singapore
Canal Walk South Africa
Mall of Scandinavia Sweden
Dream Mall Taiwan
CentralWorld Thailand
Siam Paragon Thailand
Dubai Mall United Arab Emirates
Mall of the Emirates United Arab Emirates
Trafford Centre United Kingdom
Liverpool One United Kingdom
Destiny USA United States
Houston Galleria United States
Sambil Venezuela
Iran Mall Iran

North American term for a large indoor shopping center, usually anchored by department stores.

- Shopping mall

500 related topics


Outlet store

Brick and mortar or online store in which manufacturers sell their stock directly to the public.

The Nebraska Crossing Outlets Mall (Gretna, Nebraska, 2004)
Merrimack Premium Outlets in New Hampshire in 2012

In modern usage, outlet stores are typically manufacturer-branded stores such as Gap or Bon Worth grouped together in outlet malls.

Dead mall

Century III Mall in 2019, West Mifflin, Pennsylvania, United States near Pittsburgh
Vacant stores at El Con Mall in 2009, a mall in Tucson, Arizona, United States
"Dead" wing of the Shanghai Summit Shopping City in Shanghai, China in 2007
The former Dillard's wing in Tallahassee Mall in Tallahassee, Florida, United States, in 2011
The City View Center is a dead plaza in Cleveland, Ohio.
Heikintori, the first shopping mall in Finland, started dying out in late 2019.
An empty corridor in the South China Mall (previously the New South China Mall) in 2010, one of the symptoms of the Chinese property bubble. The mall was mostly vacant for a decade after opening. However, as of February 2018, it is almost at full occupancy.
Between early 2013 and November 2017 the Bargate Centre in Southampton, England, was empty.

A dead mall (also known as a ghost mall, zombie mall, or abandoned mall) is a shopping mall with a high vacancy rate or a low consumer traffic level, or that is deteriorating in some manner.

Anchor tenant

Nordstrom, a former anchor store at The Florida Mall located in Orlando, Florida.
Meridian Mall in Dunedin, New Zealand, with the logos of the two anchor tenants (Kmart New Zealand and Arthur Barnett) displayed on the upper walls

In retail, an "anchor tenant", sometimes called an "anchor store", "draw tenant", or "key tenant", is a considerably larger tenant in a shopping mall, often a department store or retail chain.

Power center (retail)

Shopping center with typically 250000 to 600000 sqft of gross leasable area that usually contains three or more big box anchor tenants and various smaller retailers, where the anchors occupy 75–90% of the total area.

DC USA, a vertical power center in Washington, D.C.
Sign showing the main stores in The Centre on Barton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Big-box store entrances in Gateway Center, Brooklyn
Woodbury Lakes outside of Minneapolis, a "Main Street" in the middle of a power center
Dadeland Station, a vertical power center in Miami

280 Metro Center was a revolutionary development at a time when retail shopping in North America was dominated by enclosed shopping malls.

Big-box store

Physically large retail establishment, usually part of a chain of stores.

A big-box shopping center in Paramus, New Jersey, that includes an IKEA (not pictured), a Christmas Tree Shops store, and a Bed Bath & Beyond store. It is located across from Westfield Garden State Plaza shopping mall.
Interior of Mitre 10 MEGA, a big-box hardware store in Australia
A superstore in Hong Kong
Exterior of a SuperTarget in McDonough, Georgia
Interior of a Lowe's big-box hardware store in Brooklyn
Rimi hypermarket in Lilleküla, Tallinn, Estonia
2011 photo of a Sears big box store with subway station in Rego Park, Queens, New York City, New York. This location closed in 2017 and is currently occupied by an IKEA store.

In the early 21st century, commercial developers in Canada such as RioCan chose to build big-box stores (often grouped together in so-called "power centres") in lieu of traditional shopping malls.

International Council of Shopping Centers

Headquarters of ICSC at 1251 Avenue of the Americas (north skyscraper) in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, United States.

The International Council of Shopping Centers, doing business as ICSC, is the global trade association of what it calls the "Marketplaces Industry" (i.e., shopping centers, shopping malls, and all other retail real estate).

Shopping center

"Shopping centre" and "Shopping arcade" redirect here.

The interior of the Toronto Eaton Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, a 201320 sqm super-regional shopping mall
Bailian Xijiao Shopping Mall in Shanghai, at 109000 sqm a super-regional shopping center or mall
A community shopping center in Klaukkala, Uusimaa, Finland
A neighborhood shopping center catering to Vietnamese Americans in Little Saigon, Philadelphia
A strip mall in Cornelius, Oregon
Lifestyle center located in Woodbury, Minnesota
Terminal 21, a 40000 sqm shopping center in Bangkok. Each floor has a theme of a different major world city.
A pedestrian area in Kontula, Helsinki, Finland
Cleveland Arcade in Cleveland, Ohio
The Stadsfeestzaal(nl), an exhibition palace-turned-shopping center in Antwerp, Belgium
Shops at Country Club Plaza, opened 1923, one of the first planned shopping centers
Lincoln Road Mall in Miami Beach, opened 1965, lined with shops, outdoor restaurant seating, fountains and sculptures
Trajan's Market ruins, located in Rome, Italy. Thought to be the world's oldest shopping center.
Grand Bazaar of Istanbul, Turkey. Opened in 1455.
Great Gostiny Dvor, located in St.Petersburg, Russia. Opened in 1785.
Oxford Covered Market, located in Oxford, England, United Kingdom. Opened in 1774.
Passage des Panoramas, located in Paris, France. Opened in 1800.
Burlington Arcade, located in London, England, United Kingdom. Opened in 1819.
Westminster Arcade located in Providence, Rhode Island, United States. Opened in 1828.
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, located in Milan, Italy. Opened in 1870
Moscow's GUM. Opened in 1893.
Queen Victoria Building, located in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Opened in 1898.

Starting in 1946, larger, open air centers anchored by department stores were built (sometimes as a collection of adjacent retail properties with different owners), then enclosed shopping malls starting with Victor Gruen's Southdale Center near Minneapolis in 1956.


Moving staircase which carries people between floors of a building or structure.

Escalators in the Amagerbro station on the Copenhagen Metro, June 2007
Access escalators to Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Early escalator, Luna Park, Coney Island, 1909.
Escalator at the Umeda Sky Building, Osaka, Japan 2016
An animation of a moving escalator
A curved escalator
"Crisscross" layout, Shanghai Museum
"Multiple parallel" layout, Holborn Station, London
"Parallel" layout, Target Store
Emergency Stop Button of escalator.
Escalator safety guidelines at Taipei Metro.
Escalators have a grip at their side for passengers aboard to hold.
Crisscross layout of escalators at Mahboonkrong Center, widely known as the MBK Center, in Bangkok. Such layouts are used to minimize structural space requirements by "stacking" escalators that go in one direction.
The last wooden escalators in the London Underground were removed from Greenford station (pictured in 2006) in 2013.
Notice on escalators in Spain
Illustration from U.S. Patent#25,076: Revolving Stairs. Issued August 9, 1859, to Nathan Ames
A spiral escalator in Times Square, Hong Kong
Spiral Escalator US Patent 5,158,167 (Pahl 1992) Drawing
Macy's Herald Square store in New York City holds some well-known historic escalators. The model shown here, retrofitted with metal steps in the 1990s, is among the oldest of the store's 40 escalators. Otis "L-type" escalators with distinctive wood treads (not shown) have operated in the store since 1927.
Wooden treads on a 1930s Otis escalator, formerly at Wynyard railway station, Sydney, Australia
The longest escalators in the Western Hemisphere, at the Wheaton station, Washington DC Metro
Long escalators of Koivusaari metro station in Helsinki, Finland
Spiral and standard escalators in the Yokohama Minato Mirai 21, Japan
Riders stand to the right on this escalator in Umeda, Osaka, Japan

Principal areas of usage include department stores, shopping malls, airports, transit systems (railway/railroad stations), convention centers, hotels, arenas, stadiums and public buildings.

Pedestrian zone


Vienna's first pedestrian zone on the Graben (1971)
The Galerie Vivienne in Paris
Pedestrianized area in Times Square, New York City
Fremont Street Experience in Las Vegas with the neon lights on
Torggatan, a pedestrian street in Mariehamn, Åland
Marktplatz in Karlsruhe, Germany, coexists with a tramline.
Sign for pedestrian street in Central Stockholm showing a father and daughter
Knez Mihailova pedestrian zone at night with New Year decoration in Belgrade, Serbia
The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London
Lijnbaan, Rotterdam's main shopping street, 1961
Aleksanterinkatu, Helsinki's main shopping street, 2007
Calle de Preciados, Madrid
İstiklal Avenue, Istanbul
Ottawa Sparks Street Mall.
Cyclists enjoy the carfree highway (M-185) on Mackinac Island.
Florida Street, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Rua XV de Novembro in Curitiba
Tumbacuatro Street in Santa Marta.
Madero Street in the Historic center of Mexico City
Jirón de La Union in Lima
Ancient City of Aleppo, the walkway at al-Madina Souq
Sai Yeung Choi Street in Hong Kong.
Martin Place, Sydney, Australia
Elizabeth Street Mall, Hobart, Australia

This served as a model for many other such streets in the early post-World War II era, such as Warsaw, Poland and the UK's first pedestrianised shopping precinct in Stevenage in 1959.

The Dubai Mall

Shopping mall in Dubai.

The shopping mall's interior
Dubai Aquarium and Under Water Zoo
Tunnel of Dubai Aquarium & Underwater Zoo
The interior of the Rainforest Cafe in the mall.
Hysteria Dubai Mall
Dubai Dino
Dubai Mall near the Fountain at Dusk.
Dubai Mall's Gold Souk
Dubai Mall as seen with Dubai Fountains
Dubai Mall Fashion Avenue
Dubai Dinosaur
Indoor water fountain in the Dubai Mall
The Dubai Mall's gold souk

However, it does not have the most gross leasable space, and is surpassed in that category by nineteen malls including the New South China Mall, which is the world's second-largest, Golden Resources Mall, SM City North Edsa, and SM Mall of Asia.