Shortness of breath

dyspnearespiratory distressdyspnoeadifficulty breathingbreathlessnessbreathing difficultiesdifficulty in breathingdyspnea on exertionair hungerSee pronunciation information at ''dyspnea''.
Shortness of breath (SOB), also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.wikipedia
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Asthma

asthma attackbronchial asthmaasthmatic
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety. The most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema and pneumonia.
Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Pneumonia

bronchopneumoniabronchial pneumoniaNecrotizing pneumonia
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety. The most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema and pneumonia.
Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing.

Panic disorder

panicpanic disorderspanic disorde
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something terrible is going to happen.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
The most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema and pneumonia.
Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat or feeling tired.

Pneumothorax

collapsed lungtension pneumothoraxpunctured lung
The most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema and pneumonia. Pneumothorax presents typically with pleuritic chest pain of acute onset and shortness of breath not improved with oxygen.
Symptoms typically include sudden onset of sharp, one-sided chest pain and shortness of breath.

Chest pain

chest painschest tightnesschest
Acute coronary syndrome frequently presents with retrosternal chest discomfort and difficulty catching the breath.
Associated symptoms may include pain in the shoulder, arm, upper abdomen, or jaw, or nausea, sweating, or shortness of breath.

Acute decompensated heart failure

acute heart failureacute cardiac failureacute decompensated congestive heart failure
Risk factors for acute decompensation include high dietary salt intake, medication noncompliance, cardiac ischemia, dysrhythmias, renal failure, pulmonary emboli, hypertension, and infections.
Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a sudden worsening of the signs and symptoms of heart failure, which typically includes difficulty breathing (dyspnea), leg or feet swelling, and fatigue.

Orthopnea

orthopnoealying downfluid redistribution
Congestive heart failure frequently presents with shortness of breath with exertion, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
Orthopnea or orthopnoea is shortness of breath (dyspnea) that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair.

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesheart attack. Acute Coronary Syndrome
Acute coronary syndrome frequently presents with retrosternal chest discomfort and difficulty catching the breath.
This may be associated with diaphoresis (sweating), nausea and vomiting, as well as shortness of breath.

Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

exacerbationsacute exacerbationsAcute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis
An acute exacerbation presents with increased shortness of breath and sputum production.
An acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms including (shortness of breath, quantity and color of phlegm) that typically lasts for several days.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

emphysemaCOPDpulmonary emphysema
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety. The most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema and pneumonia. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), most commonly emphysema or chronic bronchitis, frequently have chronic shortness of breath and a chronic productive cough.
The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production.

Heart arrhythmia

cardiac arrhythmiaarrhythmiaarrhythmias
Risk factors for acute decompensation include high dietary salt intake, medication noncompliance, cardiac ischemia, dysrhythmias, renal failure, pulmonary emboli, hypertension, and infections.
In more serious cases, there may be lightheadedness, passing out, shortness of breath or chest pain.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety.

Electrocardiography

electrocardiogramECGEKG
An electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes are important both for diagnosis and directing treatment.

Bronchitis

chronic bronchitisbronchialbronchial affection
People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), most commonly emphysema or chronic bronchitis, frequently have chronic shortness of breath and a chronic productive cough.
Symptoms include coughing up sputum, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea

paroxysmal nocturnal dyspneaat nightmay wake the person at night
Congestive heart failure frequently presents with shortness of breath with exertion, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea (PND) is an attack of severe shortness of breath and coughing that generally occur at night.

Pleurisy

pleuritispleuriticpleuritic chest pain
Pneumothorax presents typically with pleuritic chest pain of acute onset and shortness of breath not improved with oxygen.
Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, fever or weight loss, depending on the underlying cause.

Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary embolipulmonary emboluspulmonary thrombosis
Pulmonary embolism classically presents with an acute onset of shortness of breath.
Symptoms of a PE may include shortness of breath, chest pain particularly upon breathing in, and coughing up blood.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety. The most common cardiovascular causes are acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure while common pulmonary causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema and pneumonia. Congestive heart failure frequently presents with shortness of breath with exertion, orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
Signs and symptoms of heart failure commonly include shortness of breath, excessive tiredness, and leg swelling.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Anemia that develops gradually usually presents with exertional dyspnea, fatigue, weakness, and tachycardia.
When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath, and a poor ability to exercise.

Anaphylaxis

anaphylactic shockanaphylacticanaphylactic reaction
Other important or common causes of shortness of breath include cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis, interstitial lung disease, panic attacks, and pulmonary hypertension.
It typically causes more than one of the following: an itchy rash, throat or tongue swelling, shortness of breath, vomiting, lightheadedness, and low blood pressure.

Panic attack

panic attacksanxiety attackanxiety attacks
Other important or common causes of shortness of breath include cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis, interstitial lung disease, panic attacks, and pulmonary hypertension.
Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.

Cardiac tamponade

pericardial tamponadeCardiac '''T'''amponadepericardial tamponades
Other important or common causes of shortness of breath include cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis, interstitial lung disease, panic attacks, and pulmonary hypertension.
Symptoms typically include those of cardiogenic shock including shortness of breath, weakness, lightheadedness, and cough.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALSLou Gehrig's diseasemotor neurone disease
Neurological conditions such as spinal cord injury, phrenic nerve injuries, Guillain–Barré syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and muscular dystrophy can all cause an individual to experience shortness of breath.
Most eventually lose the ability to walk, use their hands, speak, swallow, and breathe.

Vocal cord dysfunction

Paradoxical vocal fold movement (PVFM)vocal disorders
Shortness of breath can also occur as a result of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD).
People with vocal cord dysfunction often complain of "difficulty in breathing in” or “fighting for breath”, which can lead to subjective respiratory distress, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness. They may report tightness in the throat or chest, choking, stridor on inhalation and wheezing, which can resemble the symptoms of asthma. These episodes of dyspnea can be recurrent and symptoms can range from mild to severe and prolonged in some cases. Agitation and a sense of panic are not uncommon and can result in hospitalization.