A report on Shotgun

Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation
Vincent Hancock in the men's skeet finals at the 2008 Summer Olympics
A Gurkha Contingent trooper in Singapore armed with a folding stock pump shotgun
An American marine fires a Benelli M4 shotgun during training in Arta, Djibouti, 23 December 2006
Confederate cavalryman
A United States Marine carrying a Winchester M97 shotgun during World War II
A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, shown with the action open
A Winchester M1897, one of the first successful pump-action shotgun designs
A modern reproduction of the Winchester M1887 lever-action shotgun
Closeup of MTs255
A Browning A-5 semi-automatic shotgun
A United States Army soldier armed with a Mossberg 500 shotgun
Bond Arms Cowboy Defender .45 Colt/.410 Shotshell Derringer
U.S. Marines fire their shotguns
Loading 12-gauge shells
Two rounds of Fiocchi 12-gauge rubber buckshot
A homemade lupara
A RCMP officer in 2010 armed with a shotgun outfitted to fire beanbag rounds
Barack Obama skeet shooting with a Browning Citori 525 on the range at Camp David

Long-barreled firearm designed to shoot a straight-walled cartridge known as a shotshell, which usually discharges numerous small pellet-like spherical sub-projectiles called shot, or sometimes a single solid projectile called a slug.

- Shotgun
Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation

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Colt Single Action Army

Revolver

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Repeating handgun that has at least one barrel and uses a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers (each holding a single cartridge) for firing.

Repeating handgun that has at least one barrel and uses a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers (each holding a single cartridge) for firing.

Colt Single Action Army
Firing a Smith & Wesson Model 686 .357 Magnum
A Smith & Wesson Model 1, 2nd issue; a two patent date variety shown next to a period box of .22 Short black powder cartridges
Colt Single Action Army, serial No. 5773, issued to 7th Cavalry during the Indian War period
Smith & Wesson M&P revolver
Details of a Schmidt M1882, showing the hammer, chambers for the ammunition in the cylinder, and the mechanism to rotate the cylinder. Revolver of the Gendarmerie of Vaud, on display at Morges castle museum
An advertisement for Iver Johnson revolvers claimed they were safe enough for children to handle.
The LeMat Percussion Revolver, with 9 revolving chambers firing bullets and a center shotgun barrel firing lead shot, was used by the Confederate troops in the American Civil War.
LeMat Revolver, an unusual pinfire cartridge model
A fixed-cylinder Nagant M1895 with gate open for loading
An IOF .32 top-break revolver
Smith & Wesson Model 1 Third Issue open
A swing-out cylinder revolver.
From Top: Replica of 1849 vintage. .44 Colt Revolving Holster Pistol (Dragoon); Colt Single Action Army Model 1873; Ruger (New Model) Super Blackhawk- Mid and late 20th Century.
Colt Anaconda .44 Magnum double-action revolver
Enfield No. 2 Mk I* double-action-only revolver. Note the spurless hammer.
Circuit Judge carbine.
Closeup of MTs255
Mateba Autorevolver
Colt Anaconda .44 Magnum revolver
Colt Python .357 Magnum revolvers
Smith & Wesson Model 625 for IPSC shooting
Smith & Wesson Model 625JM, as designed by Jerry Miculek.
Alfa Proj Model Alfa Para 9mm caliber
Taurus .357 Magnum Model 605
Taurus .45 Colt/.410 bore Model 4510 'The Judge'
IOF .32 Revolver in .32 S&W
Colt 1849 Pocket Model, made 1850–1873.
Belgian-made Lefaucheux revolver, c. 1860-1865
A Russian Nagant M1895
A Smith & Wesson Model 29
North American Arms (NAA) mini revolver in .22 LR. It can fold into its own grip for safe belt clip carry.

These include some models of rifles, shotguns, grenade launchers, and cannons.

A modern round consists of the following: 1. bullet, as the projectile; 2. cartridge case, which holds all parts together; 3. propellant, for example gunpowder or cordite; 4. rim, which provides the extractor on the firearm a place to grip the casing to remove it from the chamber once fired; 5. primer, which ignites the propellant.

Cartridge (firearms)

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Type of pre-assembled firearm ammunition packaging a projectile , a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper, or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.

Type of pre-assembled firearm ammunition packaging a projectile , a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper, or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.

A modern round consists of the following: 1. bullet, as the projectile; 2. cartridge case, which holds all parts together; 3. propellant, for example gunpowder or cordite; 4. rim, which provides the extractor on the firearm a place to grip the casing to remove it from the chamber once fired; 5. primer, which ignites the propellant.
A variety of rifle cartridges: (1).17 HM2 (2).17 HMR (3).22LR (4).22 Win Mag R/F.22 WMR (5).17/23 SMc (6)5mm/35 SMc (7).22 Hornet (8).223 Remington (9).223 WSSM (10).243 Win (11).243 Win Improved (Ackley) (12).25-06 Remington (13).270 Winchester (14).308 Win (15).30-06 Springfield (16).45-70 Government (17).50-90 Sharps
Three straight-walled cartridges (9×19mm Parabellum, .40 S&W and .45 ACP) on the left, three bottleneck cartridges (FN 5.7×28mm, 5.56×45mm NATO and .300 Winchester Magnum) in the center, and two polymer-cased 12-gauge shotshells on the right.
Smokeless powders used for handloading
A large portion of the energy generated by the propellant is released as a muzzle blast and a bright flash, instead of transferring to the projectile
Percussion caps, the precursor of modern primers
Comparison of primer ignition between centerfire (left two) and rimfire (right) ammunitions
Flash hole profiles on Berdan (left) and Boxer (right) primers.
0.30–30 Winchester case, stages in the drawing process, book; from Hamilton
US Cartridges 1860–1875 
(1) Colt Army 1860 .44 paper cartridge, Civil War 
(2) Colt Thuer-Conversion .44 revolver cartridge, patented 1868 
(3) .44 Henry rim fire cartridge flat 
(4) .44 Henry rim fire cartridge pointed 
(5) Frankford Arsenal .45 Colt cartridge, Benét ignition 
(6) Frankford Arsenal .45 Colt-Schofield cartridge, Benét ignition
Historic British cartridges
Chassepot paper cartridge (1866).
(From Left to Right): A .577 Snider cartridge (1867), a .577/450 Martini-Henry cartridge (1871), a later drawn brass .577/450 Martini-Henry cartridge, and a .303 British Mk VII SAA Ball cartridge.
French Army Fusil Gras mle 1874 metallic cartridge.
The 8 mm Lebel ammunition, developed in 1886, the first smokeless gunpowder cartridge to be made and adopted by any country.
Fired rimfire (left) and centerfire (right) cartridges. A rimfire firing pin produces a notch at the edge of the rim; a centerfire pin produces a divot in the center of the primer.
Schematic of a rimfire cartridge and its ignition
Slow motion shots (1/1,000,000-second exposures) showing shots and wadding separation after firing from a shotgun.
A 12-gauge Brenneke slug
Two views of intact bean bag round and one view of the projectile
A cutaway showing a Japanese Navy 7.7 mm rimmed rounds as fired by the Type 92 and Type 97 machine guns—copies of Vickers and Lewis designs. The round is effectively interchangeable with .303 British.
A variety of common pistol cartridges. From left to right: 22 LR, .22 WMR, 5.7×28mm, 25 ACP, 7.62×25mm Tokarev, 32 ACP, 380 ACP, 9×19mm Parabellum, 357 SIG, 40 S&W, 45 GAP, 45 ACP, .38 Special, 357 Magnum, 45 Colt
CCI .22LR snake shot loaded with No. 12 shot
An example of caseless ammunition. This disassembled round, the 4.73×33mm, is used in the Heckler & Koch G11 rifle.
Dardick 1500 with trounds
Blank cartridges:
23×152mm cartridge, drill round
9 × 19 mm Mek-Porek
An assortment of snap caps of varying calibers
Rimless .380 ACP semi-automatic cartridge
Rimmed .38 special revolver cartridge

The main defining component of the cartridge is the case, which gives the cartridge its shape and serves as the integrating housing for other functional components – it acts as a container for the propellant powders and also serve as a protective shell against the elements; it attaches the projectile either at the front end of the cartridge (bullets for pistols, submachine guns, rifles, and machine guns) or inside of the cartridge (wadding/sabot containing either a number of shot or an individual slug for shotguns), and align it with the barrel bore to the front; it holds the primer at the back end, which receives impact from a firing pin and is responsible for igniting the main propellant charge inside the case.

The Tsar Cannon with its massive bore and the stacked barrel-looking exterior

Gun barrel

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Crucial part of gun-type weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

Crucial part of gun-type weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

The Tsar Cannon with its massive bore and the stacked barrel-looking exterior
A female worker boring out the barrel of a Lee-Enfield rifle during WWI
The barrel of a 240 mm howitzer in use in 1944
A German Army G22 with fluted barrel
A cartridge being chambered into a Springfield M1903.
Illustration of the various sections of a typical rifle chamber. The back end is to the left, and the front is to the right. — body (purple), shoulder (pink) and neck (green).
Closeup of barrel throat area. The chamber is to the left, and the muzzle is to the right. The freebore (cyan) and leade (dark grey) transition into rifled bore (pale grey), and the comparison between freebore diameter vs. rifling groove and land diameter.
The inside of a Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore tank gun (seen from the muzzle) of a Leopard 2A4
Muzzle of a SIG 550 rifle, equipped with a birdcage-type flash suppressor
Various types of shotgun chokes
Muzzle blast modulated by an A2-style flash suppressor
Production steps in the cold-hammer forging process to produce the barrels for a double-barrelled shotgun

In most firearms (rifles, shotguns, machine guns and pistols), the chamber is an integral part of the barrel, often made by simply reaming the rear bore of a barrel blank, with a single chamber within a single barrel.

A 12-gauge shotgun shell in a transparent plastic hull, allowing the contents to be seen. From left to right: brass, propellant, over-powder wad, shot wad, #8 birdshot, over-shot wad, and crimp

Shotgun shell

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A 12-gauge shotgun shell in a transparent plastic hull, allowing the contents to be seen. From left to right: brass, propellant, over-powder wad, shot wad, #8 birdshot, over-shot wad, and crimp
A 1908 depiction of a shotgun shell, showing a primitive felt wad to separate the powder (left) and shot (right)
Shotgun shell comparison (left to right): 12-gauge, 20-gauge, 16-gauge, 28-gauge, and .410 bore
M35 .410 shotgun shells for M-6 survival gun w/.22 long rifle for comparison
CCI .22LR snake shot loaded with #12 shot
Military Issue .45 ACP M15 "shot shell" on the far right.
Lead shot
12-gauge birdshot shotgun shell.

A shotgun shell, shotshell or simply shell is a type of rimmed, cylindrical (straight-walled) cartridges used specifically in shotguns, and is typically loaded with numerous small, pellet-like spherical sub-projectiles called shot, fired through a smoothbore barrel with a tapered constriction at the muzzle to regulate the extent of scattering.

A Mossberg 500 12-gauge pump-action shotgun with a pistol grip.

Pump action

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Repeating firearm action that is operated manually by moving a sliding handguard on the gun's forestock.

Repeating firearm action that is operated manually by moving a sliding handguard on the gun's forestock.

A Mossberg 500 12-gauge pump-action shotgun with a pistol grip.
A Remington Model 760 .30-06 Springfield pump-action rifle.
The RMB-93 pump action shotgun which has the barrel below the magazine tube
The Mossberg 590 pump action shotgun with the barrel over the tubular magazine.
Akkar Churchill SBS (Short Barrel Shotgun) pump action shotgun 12 inch barrel
The Colt Lightning pump action rifle.
The GM-94 Pump action 43mm Russian grenade launcher.

Pump-action is typically associated with shotguns, although it has been used in rifles and other firearms as well.

The toggle-link action used in the iconic Winchester Model 1873 rifle, one of the most famous lever-action firearms

Lever action

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Type of action for repeating firearms that uses a manually operated cocking handle located around the trigger guard area that pivots forward to move the bolt via internal linkages, which will feed and extract cartridges into and out of the chamber, and cock the firing pin mechanism.

Type of action for repeating firearms that uses a manually operated cocking handle located around the trigger guard area that pivots forward to move the bolt via internal linkages, which will feed and extract cartridges into and out of the chamber, and cock the firing pin mechanism.

The toggle-link action used in the iconic Winchester Model 1873 rifle, one of the most famous lever-action firearms
Spencer-carbine M1865, .50 inch
Colt-Burgess rifle
Colt Paterson Ring Lever rifle
Inside of Marlin 39A receiver
Savage Model 99 rifle
A modern reproduction of the Winchester Model 1887 lever-action shotgun
M1895 operating mechanism showing the lever in the forward (top) and rear (bottom) positions
Henry rifle, toggle-lock

Most lever-action firearms are rifles, but some lever-action shotguns and a few pistols have been made.

The AWM sniper rifle, a bolt-action rifle

Bolt action

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Type of manual firearm action that is operated by directly manipulating the bolt via a bolt handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon .

Type of manual firearm action that is operated by directly manipulating the bolt via a bolt handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon .

The AWM sniper rifle, a bolt-action rifle
A Kelbly rifle action bolt that has been oiled to run smoothly.
A US Marine extracts a fired cartridge from an M40A3 using a bolt-action mechanism
A disassembled Karabiner 98k action
Close-up of the action on an SMLE Mk III rifle, showing the bolt head, magazine cut off, and charger clip guide.
Cutaway diagram of the Vetterli rifle's action.
The Mannlicher M95/30
Lee Navy Model 1895
Heym SR 30 (1998), straight pull action. Lock up is achieved by 6 ball bearings around the circumference of the bolt head. This mechanism was originally developed for biathlon rifles.
Merkel RX Helix (2010)
JKB-15 Bolt Action AR Style Rifle

The majority of these firearms are rifles, but there are some bolt-action variants of shotguns and handguns as well.

Illustration of the effect that different types of chokes have on the spread ("pattern") of shotgun projectiles

Choke (firearms)

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Tapered constriction of a gun barrel at the muzzle end.

Tapered constriction of a gun barrel at the muzzle end.

Illustration of the effect that different types of chokes have on the spread ("pattern") of shotgun projectiles
Greatly exaggerated illustration of different choke constrictions, German names: 
A: Cylinder (no choke) 
B: Improved cylinder 
C: Glocken 
D: Skeet 
E: Full (normal) 
F: Spitzbogen 
G: Jug 
H: Paradox
Left: Permanent choke. Center: Replaceable choke inserted into the muzzle. Right: Threaded barrel without choke insert. (For illustration only; a threaded barrel must never be fired without a properly inserted choke tube.)

Chokes are most commonly seen on shotguns, but are also used on some rifles, pistols, or even airguns.

A US Navy sailor fires a Mk 18 Mod 1 carbine at a target.

Firearm

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Any type of gun designed to be readily carried and used by an individual.

Any type of gun designed to be readily carried and used by an individual.

A US Navy sailor fires a Mk 18 Mod 1 carbine at a target.
A Colt Single Action Army revolver, with hammer cocked back
A Glock 17 semi-automatic pistol
Springfield Armory M1903 rifle
A US Marine firing a Mossberg 500 shotgun
MG 42 general-purpose machine gun with retracted bipod
The Accuracy International Arctic Warfare series of sniper rifles is a standard issue in the armies of several countries, including those of Britain, Ireland, and Germany (shown).
Czechoslovak 7.65 mm submachine gun Škorpion vz. 61 designed in 1959.
Suomi M31 submachine with a 70-round drum magazine attached, 20- and 50-round box magazines.
The AK-47 is one of the most widely produced and used assault rifles in the world.
FN P90 PDW
Belgian FN SCAR-H
Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368)
The istinggar, a result of Indo-Portuguese gun-making traditions
A) The matchlock gun with button for trigger, which came to Lisbon from Bohemia, used by the Portuguese until the conquest of Goa in 1510. B) The Indo-Portuguese matchlock gun resulted from the combination of Portuguese and Goan gunmaking. C) The Japanese matchlock gun appeared as a copy of the first firearm introduced in the Japanese islands.
A musketeer (1608)
Hand cannon being fired from a stand, "Belli Fortis", manuscript, by Konrad Kyeser, 1400
Percussion cap and early bolt action form
Various Japanese (samurai) Edo period matchlocks (tanegashima)
A wheellock pistol mechanism from the 17th century
Flintlock mechanism
(From left to right): A .577 Snider cartridge (1867), a .577/450 Martini-Henry cartridge (1871), a later drawn brass .577/450 Martini-Henry cartridge, and a .303 British Mk VII SAA Ball cartridge.
The French FAMAS, example of a bullpup rifle
The M4 carbine, a modern-day service rifle capable of being fired automatically. It is in service by the U.S. military and has a wide ability for customization.
Gun-related homicide and suicide rates in high-income OECD countries, 2010, ordered by total death rates (homicide plus suicide plus other gun-related deaths).

Most modern firearms (with the notable exception of smoothbore shotguns) have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.

Winchester Model 1897 Trench Gun with M1917 bayonet

Combat shotgun

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Winchester Model 1897 Trench Gun with M1917 bayonet
Winchester Model 1912 Trench Gun
Remington 1100 Tactical Shotgun in 12-gauge—holds eight 2" rounds in the tube
Confederate cavalryman with muzzle-loading shotgun
A group of US Marines in Iraq in 2005, armed with a combat shotgun, assault rifle, and squad automatic weapon
United States Marine carrying a Winchester M97 shotgun
A Mossberg 590 being used by a US Marine for door breaching in Karma, Iraq, in 2005
US soldiers in Tal Afar, Iraq, search for insurgents. The soldier in the foreground is carrying an assault rifle and a shotgun on a sling for breaching
A Mossberg 500 shotgun fitted with a grenade launcher adapter, shown holding a less lethal riot control grenade
A US soldier in Aksabah, Iraq, uses a pistol-grip shotgun to breach a locked door in a night operation
The Benelli M1014, seen in training use in Arta, Djibouti, late 2006

A combat shotgun is a shotgun issued by militaries for warfare.