Shotgun

Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation
Vincent Hancock in the men's skeet finals at the 2008 Summer Olympics
A Gurkha Contingent trooper in Singapore armed with a folding stock pump shotgun
An American marine fires a Benelli M4 shotgun during training in Arta, Djibouti, 23 December 2006
Confederate cavalryman
A United States Marine carrying a Winchester M97 shotgun during World War II
A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, shown with the action open
A Winchester M1897, one of the first successful pump-action shotgun designs
A modern reproduction of the Winchester M1887 lever-action shotgun
Closeup of MTs255
A Browning A-5 semi-automatic shotgun
A United States Army soldier armed with a Mossberg 500 shotgun
Bond Arms Cowboy Defender .45 Colt/.410 Shotshell Derringer
U.S. Marines fire their shotguns
Loading 12-gauge shells
Two rounds of Fiocchi 12-gauge rubber buckshot
A homemade lupara
A RCMP officer in 2010 armed with a shotgun outfitted to fire beanbag rounds
Barack Obama skeet shooting with a Browning Citori 525 on the range at Camp David

Long-barreled firearm designed to shoot a straight-walled cartridge known as a shotshell, which usually discharges numerous small pellet-like spherical sub-projectiles called shot, or sometimes a single solid projectile called a slug.

- Shotgun
Series of individual 1/1,000,000-second exposures showing shotgun firing shot and wadding separation

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Alpha

A 81mm L16 smoothbore mortar

Smoothbore

One that has a barrel without rifling.

One that has a barrel without rifling.

A 81mm L16 smoothbore mortar
Replica of "Twin Sisters" smoothbores used in the Battle of San Jacinto (1836)
A smooth-bore, cast-iron ship's cannon, from the Grand Turk, a replica of a mid-18th century three-masted frigate
USS Monitor (1862) with the muzzle of one of its two 11-inch smoothbore Dahlgren guns showing

A shotgun fires multiple, round shot; firing out of a rifled barrel would impart centrifugal forces that result a doughnut-shaped pattern of shot (with a high projectile density on the periphery, and a low projectile density in the interior).

A Mossberg 500 12-gauge pump-action shotgun with a pistol grip.

Pump action

Repeating firearm action that is operated manually by moving a sliding handguard on the gun's forestock.

Repeating firearm action that is operated manually by moving a sliding handguard on the gun's forestock.

A Mossberg 500 12-gauge pump-action shotgun with a pistol grip.
A Remington Model 760 .30-06 Springfield pump-action rifle.
The RMB-93 pump action shotgun which has the barrel below the magazine tube
The Mossberg 590 pump action shotgun with the barrel over the tubular magazine.
Akkar Churchill SBS (Short Barrel Shotgun) pump action shotgun 12 inch barrel
The Colt Lightning pump action rifle.
The GM-94 Pump action 43mm Russian grenade launcher.

Pump-action is typically associated with shotguns, although it has been used in rifles and other firearms as well.

A flintlock blunderbuss, built for Tipu Sultan

Blunderbuss

Firearm with a short, large caliber barrel which is flared at the muzzle and frequently throughout the entire bore, and used with shot and other projectiles of relevant quantity or caliber.

Firearm with a short, large caliber barrel which is flared at the muzzle and frequently throughout the entire bore, and used with shot and other projectiles of relevant quantity or caliber.

A flintlock blunderbuss, built for Tipu Sultan
An English flintlock blunderbuss.
A French blunderbuss, called an espingole, 1760, France.
Musketoon, blunderbuss and coach gun from the American Civil War era.
A blunderbuss pistol, or dragon, found at a battlefield in Cerro Gordo, Veracruz, Mexico
An 1808 Harper's Ferry blunderbuss, of the type carried on the Lewis and Clark Expedition
A pair of early blunderbuss pistols from Poland fitted with the miquelet lock
A recreation of one of Lewis and Clark's pirogues with a blunderbuss mounted to the bow with a pintle.

The blunderbuss is commonly considered to be an early predecessor of the modern shotgun, with similar military and defensive use.

Winchester Model 1897

Winchester Model 1897

Winchester Model 1897
Open action on an 1897 portraying the long slide that projects from the receiver.
Model 1897 (trench grade) and the reproduced Norinco (riot grade)
Winchester Model 1897 Trench Gun
Winchester M97 and M12 Trench guns
Model 1897 adapter that allowed the attachment of the M1917 bayonet

The Winchester Model 1897, also known as the Model 97, M97, or Trench Gun, is a pump-action shotgun with an external hammer and tube magazine manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company.

The toggle-link action used in the iconic Winchester Model 1873 rifle, one of the most famous lever-action firearms

Lever action

Type of action for repeating firearms that uses a manually operated cocking handle located around the trigger guard area that pivots forward to move the bolt via internal linkages, which will feed and extract cartridges into and out of the chamber, and cock the firing pin mechanism.

Type of action for repeating firearms that uses a manually operated cocking handle located around the trigger guard area that pivots forward to move the bolt via internal linkages, which will feed and extract cartridges into and out of the chamber, and cock the firing pin mechanism.

The toggle-link action used in the iconic Winchester Model 1873 rifle, one of the most famous lever-action firearms
Spencer-carbine M1865, .50 inch
Colt-Burgess rifle
Colt Paterson Ring Lever rifle
Inside of Marlin 39A receiver
Savage Model 99 rifle
A modern reproduction of the Winchester Model 1887 lever-action shotgun
M1895 operating mechanism showing the lever in the forward (top) and rear (bottom) positions
Henry rifle, toggle-lock

Most lever-action firearms are rifles, but some lever-action shotguns and a few pistols have been made.

The AWM sniper rifle, a bolt-action rifle

Bolt action

Type of manual firearm action that is operated by directly manipulating the bolt via a bolt handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon .

Type of manual firearm action that is operated by directly manipulating the bolt via a bolt handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon .

The AWM sniper rifle, a bolt-action rifle
A Kelbly rifle action bolt that has been oiled to run smoothly.
A US Marine extracts a fired cartridge from an M40A3 using a bolt-action mechanism
A disassembled Karabiner 98k action
Close-up of the action on an SMLE Mk III rifle, showing the bolt head, magazine cut off, and charger clip guide.
Cutaway diagram of the Vetterli rifle's action.
The Mannlicher M95/30
Lee Navy Model 1895
Heym SR 30 (1998), straight pull action. Lock up is achieved by 6 ball bearings around the circumference of the bolt head. This mechanism was originally developed for biathlon rifles.
Merkel RX Helix (2010)

The majority of these firearms are rifles, but there are some bolt-action variants of shotguns and handguns as well.

A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, with the action open and the extractor visible. The opening lever and the safety catch can also be clearly seen.

Break action

Type of firearm action in which the barrel or barrels are hinged much like a door and rotate perpendicularly to the bore axis to expose the breech and allow loading and unloading of cartridges.

Type of firearm action in which the barrel or barrels are hinged much like a door and rotate perpendicularly to the bore axis to expose the breech and allow loading and unloading of cartridges.

A view of the break-action of a typical double-barrelled shotgun, with the action open and the extractor visible. The opening lever and the safety catch can also be clearly seen.
Close-up of an IOF 32 break-action revolver
Smith & Wesson Model 1 Third Issue open

To get multiple shots requires either multiple barrels or a revolver cylinder; while this is fairly simple for shotguns, with double-barreled shotguns being quite common and even four-barreled designs like the FAMARS Rombo are available, double rifles require very precise alignment of the barrels in order to achieve consistent accuracy.

Illustration of the effect that different types of chokes have on the spread ("pattern") of shotgun projectiles

Choke (firearms)

Tapered constriction of a gun barrel at the muzzle end.

Tapered constriction of a gun barrel at the muzzle end.

Illustration of the effect that different types of chokes have on the spread ("pattern") of shotgun projectiles
Greatly exaggerated illustration of different choke constrictions, German names: 
A: Cylinder (no choke) 
B: Improved cylinder 
C: Glocken 
D: Skeet 
E: Full (normal) 
F: Spitzbogen 
G: Jug 
H: Paradox
Left: Permanent choke. Center: Replaceable choke inserted into the muzzle. Right: Threaded barrel without choke insert. (For illustration only; a threaded barrel must never be fired without a properly inserted choke tube.)

Chokes are most commonly seen on shotguns, but are also used on some rifles, pistols, or even airguns.

Colt Single Action Army

Revolver

Repeating handgun that has at least one barrel and uses a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers (each holding a single cartridge) for firing.

Repeating handgun that has at least one barrel and uses a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers (each holding a single cartridge) for firing.

Colt Single Action Army
Firing a Smith & Wesson Model 686 .357 Magnum
A Smith & Wesson Model 1, 2nd issue; a two patent date variety shown next to a period box of .22 Short black powder cartridges
Colt Single Action Army, serial No. 5773, issued to 7th Cavalry during the Indian War period
Smith & Wesson M&P revolver
Details of a Schmidt M1882, showing the hammer, chambers for the ammunition in the cylinder, and the mechanism to rotate the cylinder. Revolver of the Gendarmerie of Vaud, on display at Morges castle museum
An advertisement for Iver Johnson revolvers claimed they were safe enough for children to handle.
The LeMat Percussion Revolver, with 9 revolving chambers firing bullets and a center shotgun barrel firing lead shot, was used by the Confederate troops in the American Civil War.
LeMat Revolver, an unusual pinfire cartridge model
A fixed-cylinder Nagant M1895 with gate open for loading
An IOF .32 top-break revolver
Smith & Wesson Model 1 Third Issue open
A swing-out cylinder revolver.
From Top: Replica of 1849 vintage. .44 Colt Revolving Holster Pistol (Dragoon); Colt Single Action Army Model 1873; Ruger (New Model) Super Blackhawk- Mid and late 20th Century.
Colt Anaconda .44 Magnum double-action revolver
Enfield No. 2 Mk I* double-action-only revolver. Note the spurless hammer.
Circuit Judge carbine.
Closeup of MTs255
Mateba Autorevolver
Colt Anaconda .44 Magnum revolver
Colt Python .357 Magnum revolvers
Smith & Wesson Model 625 for IPSC shooting
Smith & Wesson Model 625JM, as designed by Jerry Miculek.
Alfa Proj Model Alfa Para 9mm caliber
Taurus .357 Magnum Model 605
Taurus .45 Colt/.410 bore Model 4510 'The Judge'
IOF .32 Revolver in .32 S&W
Colt 1849 Pocket Model, made 1850–1873.
Belgian-made Lefaucheux revolver, c. 1860-1865
A Russian Nagant M1895
A Smith & Wesson Model 29
North American Arms (NAA) mini revolver in .22 LR. It can fold into its own grip for safe belt clip carry.

These include some models of rifles, shotguns, grenade launchers, and cannons.

Loaded muzzleloading cannon. (1) Priming charge (2) Main propellant charge (3) Wadding (4) Projectile (5) Wadding

Muzzleloader

Any firearm into which the projectile and the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun .

Any firearm into which the projectile and the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun .

Loaded muzzleloading cannon. (1) Priming charge (2) Main propellant charge (3) Wadding (4) Projectile (5) Wadding
Wadding recovered from the wreck of the packet ship Hanover and was found inside a loaded cannon, National Maritime Museum Cornwall (2014)
A pair of French rifled, flintlock, duelling pistols by Nicolas Noël Boutet 1794-1797. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada. The set of accessories includes a small hammer as rifled pistols used slightly oversized bullets; a hammer was needed to drive the bullet down the barrel when loading.
Varsity Scouts of the Boy Scouts of America learning about muzzleloading rifles
Muzzle-loading gun on its carriage

In shotguns, a card wad or other secure wadding is used between the powder and the shot charge to prevent pellets from dropping into the powder charge and on top of the shot charge to hold it in place in the barrel.