Shulchan Aruch

Most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.

- Shulchan Aruch

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Shneur Zalman of Liadi

Influential rabbi and the founder and first Rebbe of Chabad, a branch of Hasidic Judaism, then based in Liadi in the Russian Empire.

Writing sample from the Brockhaus and Efron Jewish Encyclopedia (1906–1913)
The French retreat from Moscow
Kozienice Synagogue in Poland. Some Polish Hasidic leaders supported Napoleon
Petropavlovski fortress in St. Petersburg
New guesthouse next to his Ohel
His grave in Hadiach
The Tanya, a classic text of Hasidic philosophy
1875 edition of the Shulchan Aruch HaRav

The Maggid of Mezeritch sought a new version of the classic Shulkhan Arukh for the Hasidic movement.

Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews (יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז, ; אַשכּנזישע ייִדן), also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim, are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium CE.

The Jews in Central Europe (1881)
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent.
Jews from Worms (Germany) wearing the mandatory yellow badge.
The example of the chevra kadisha, the Jewish burial society, Prague, 1772

Differences are noted in the Shulkhan Arukh itself, in the gloss of Moses Isserles.

Akiva Eiger

Outstanding Talmudic scholar, influential halakhic decisor and foremost leader of European Jewry during the early 19th century.

19th century portrait of Akiva Eiger, in the collection of the Jewish Museum of Switzerland.

He was a rigorous casuist of the old school, and his chief works were legal notes and responsa on the Talmud and the Shulchan Aruch.

Dov Ber of Mezeritch

Disciple of Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (the Baal Shem Tov), the founder of Hasidic Judaism, and was chosen as his successor to lead the early movement.

Title page of Maggid Devarav L'Yaakov (Koretz, 1781 edition).
Mausoleum in Hanipol where he is buried alongside Zusha of Hanipol, Reb Leib HaKohen

The elite group of disciples, the "Chevraya Kaddisha" ("Holy Society"), included Rabbis Aharon of Karlin, Menachem Mendel of Vitebsk, Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev, Elimelech of Lizhensk, Zusha of Hanipol, Shmelka (later Chief Rabbi of Nikolsburg), Pinchas Horowitz (later Chief Rabbi of Frankfurt-am-Main and author of profound Talmudic commentaries), and Shneur Zalman of Liadi (author of the Tanya, and by instructions of his master, author of an updated version of the Shulchan Aruch code of Jewish Law for the new movement).

Yechezkel Landau

Influential authority in halakha (Jewish law).

Dagul Mervavah on the Shulkhan Arukh (cf. Song of Solomon 5:10)

Israel Isserlein

Israel Isserlin (ישראל איסרלן; Israel Isserlein ben Petachia; 1390 in Maribor, Duchy of Styria – 1460 in Wiener Neustadt, Lower Austria) was a Talmudist, and Halakhist, best known for his Terumat HaDeshen, which served as one source for HaMapah, the component of the Shulkhan Arukh by Moses Isserles.

Orthodox Judaism

Collective term for the traditionalist and theologically conservative branches of contemporary Judaism.

Visitors in the Orthodox Jewish cemetery in Budapest, circa 1920; the word "Orthodox" (ארטאדאקסען) is painted on the wall, second to the left. Traditionalist Jews in Hungary were the first anywhere to use the term "orthodox" in the formation of an independent Orthodox organization in 1871.
A Jewish man pilloried in the synagogue, a common punishment in the pre-emancipation Jewish community in Europe.
Moses Sofer of Pressburg, considered the father of Orthodoxy in general and ultra-Orthodoxy in particular.
Isaac Bernays in clerical vestments. The ministerial style of dress seen here was ubiquitous among German and Western European (neo)-Orthodox Jews.
David Zvi Hoffmann, the single most prominent Orthodox theoretician who dealt with the critical-historical method.
Young Samson Raphael Hirsch, the ideologue of Orthodox secession in Germany.
Chaim Sofer, the leading halakhic authority of the Hungarian "zealots" during the Orthodox-Neolog schism.
Beth Medrash Govoha (Hebrew:בית מדרש גבוה), in Lakewood, New Jersey, U.S., the world's largest yeshiva outside Israel
Haredi schoolgirls at the Western Wall.
Ultra-Orthodox demonstrators (over 300,000 took part), protesting for the right of Yeshiva students to avoid conscription to the Israeli Army. Jerusalem, 2 March 2014.

These three works in particular were the main basis of Rabbi Jacob ben Asher's Arba'ah Turim, which in turn became the basis of one of the latest and most authoritative codifications - the 1565 Shulchan Aruch, or "Set Table," by Rabbi Joseph Karo.

David HaLevi Segal

David ha-Levi Segal (c.

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud

1586 – 20 February 1667), also known as the Turei Zahav (abbreviated Taz ) after the title of his significant halakhic commentary on the Shulchan Aruch, was one of the greatest Polish rabbinical authorities.

Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin

Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin (יעקב בן משה מולין) (c.

Grave of Yaakov ben Moshe Levi Moelin in Worms, Germany

Maharil's Minhagim was a source of law for Moses Isserles’ component of the Shulkhan Arukh.


Traditional Jewish educational institution focused on the study of Rabbinic literature, primarily the Talmud and halacha (Jewish law), while Torah and Jewish philosophy are studied in parallel.

Mir Yeshiva (Jerusalem) – largest yeshiva in the world
A typical bet midrash – Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, Baltimore
Chavrusas in study – Yeshiva Gedola of Carteret
Morning seder, Or-Yisrael - a yeshiva founded by the Chazon Ish
Shiur in memory of Rav Aharon Lichtenstein at Yeshivat Har Etzion, a Hesder yeshiva
Rabbinical students in shiur, Jerusalem
Shiur klali, Slabodka Yeshiva
A depiction of Sura (from Beit Hatefutsot)
Volozhin yeshiva, “mother of the yeshivas”
Mir yeshiva
Ponevezh Yeshiva in Bnei Brak, Israel
Chachmei Lublin Yeshiva, now a national monument
The Breslov Yeshiva in Mea Shearim, Jerusalem.
Satmar Yeshiva in Brooklyn, New York.
Bobov Kollel in Jerusalem
Geula branch of Porat Yosef Yeshiva.
Kisse Rahamim yeshivah, Bnei Brak
JTS building in Manhattan
Reconstructionist Rabbinical College
Beth Medrash Govoha, Lakewood, New Jersey – largest yeshiva outside Israel.
Mercaz Harav, Jerusalem
Kollel Birkat Yitzhak, Moscow
Mir Yeshiva in Brooklyn
Mincha, Yeshiva Centre, Melbourne
Talmud Torah, Russia, 1937
Yeshiva High School, Tel Aviv, 1938
"Cheder"-class in Talmud, Tel Aviv, 1946.
Bet Midrash, Yeshivat Kerem B'Yavneh
Gemara, the first page of tractate Rosh Hashanah
A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Chavrusas learning beki'ut, recording their summary of each sugya alongside its Mishnah
Set of Mishneh Torah
Cover of the first edition of Mesillat Yesharim.
Chumash with Mikraot Gedolot
Chumash with Yiddish translation

At these levels, students link the Talmudic discussion to codified law – particularly Mishneh Torah (i.e. Maimonides), Arba'ah Turim and Shulchan Aruch – by studying, also, the halakha-focused commentaries of Asher ben Jehiel, Isaac Alfasi and Mordechai ben Hillel, respectively referred to as “Rosh”, “Rif”, and the “Mordechai”.