Shunga Empire

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.
Royal family, Shunga, West Bengal 1st century BCE.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Shunga period stupa at Sanchi.
East Gateway and Railings, Red Sandstone, Bharhut Stupa, 2nd century BCE. Indian Museum, Kolkata.
The Great Stupa under the Shungas. The Shungas nearly doubled the diameter of the initial stupa, encasing it in stone, and built a balustrade and a railing around it.
Extent of the Shunga Empire
Vedika pillar with "Yavana" Greek warrior. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c. 100-80 BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Yavanarajya inscription, dated to "year 116 of Yavana hegemony", probably 70 or 69 BCE, was discovered in Mathura. Mathura Museum.
The Heliodorus pillar was built in Vidisha under the Shungas, at the instigation of Heliodorus, ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. The pillar originally supported a statue of Garuda. Established circa 100 BCE.
The Sunga territory circa 100 BCE, greatly reduced to the region of Magadha only, with many independent, petty kingdoms such as such as Mathura and Panchala
Shunga balustrade and staircase.
Shunga stonework.
Shunga vedika (railing) with inscriptions.
Deambulatory pathway.
Summit railing and umbrellas.
Elephant and Riders.
Balustrade post with Lakshmi.
Balustrade post with Yaksha.
Pillar with elephants supporting a wheel.
Personage.
Lotus.
Floral motif.
Foreigner on a horse, circa 115 BCE.
Ashoka supported by his two wives. Similar to [[:File:Sanchi King Ashoka with his Queens, South Gate, Stupa no. 1.jpg|the later relief at Gateway 1]].
Relic boxes found inside the stupa.
Stairway and railing.
Lotus medallions.
Floral designs.
Post relief.<ref>Marshall p.82</ref>
Relics of Sariputra and Mahamoggallana.
Chandraketugarth, goddess of fecundity.
Chandraketugarth.
Shunga Yakshi, 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga masculine figurine (molded plate). 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga woman with child. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga Yaksha. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga mother figure, with attendant. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Shunga fecundity deity. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Baluster-holding yakṣa, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Guimet Museum.
Amorous royal couple. Shunga, 1st century BCE, West Bengal.
Sunga Love Scene.
Bronze coin of the Shunga period, Eastern India. 2nd–1st century BCE.
Another Shunga coin
A copper coin of 1/4 karshapana of Ujjain in Malwa.
Shunga coin.

Ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE.

- Shunga Empire

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Bodh Gaya

Religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar.

The Bodhi Tree under which Gautama Buddha is said to have obtained Enlightenment
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Mahabodhi temple, built under the Gupta Empire, 6th century CE.
Buddhist monks meditating in Bodh Gaya
Illustration of the temple built by Asoka at Bodh-Gaya around the Bodhi tree. Sculpture of the Satavahana period at Sanchi, 1st century CE.

Representations of this early temple are found at Sanchi, on the toraṇas of Stūpa I, dating from around 25 BCE, and on a relief carving from the stupa railing at Bhārhut, from the early Shunga period (c.

Satavahana dynasty

Ancient South Asian dynasty based in Deccan.

Early Satavahana coinage, Satakarni issue, Maharashtra – Vidarbha type, 1st century BCE.
Early sculpture from Pauni, ancient Vidarbha, where coins of Satakarni were also found. Pillar with Naga Mucalinda protecting the throne of the Buddha at Pauni (Bhandara District). 2nd-1st century BCE. National Museum of India.
Cave No.19
Naneghat inscription. Dated to 70-60 BCE, in the reign of Satakarni I.
A coin of Nahapana restruck by the Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni. Nahapana's profile and coin legend are still clearly visible.
The defeated "Saka-Yavana-Palhava" (Brahmi script: mentioned in the Nasik cave 3 inscription of Queen Gotami Balasiri (end of line 5 of the inscription).
Coin of Vashishtiputra Satakarni.
Coin of Yajna Sri Satakarni, British Museum.
Ashoka with his Queens, at Sannati (Kanaganahalli Stupa), 1st-3rd century CE. The inscription "Rāya Asoko" (, "King Ashoka") in Brahmi script is carved on the relief.
Indian ship on lead coin of Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi, testimony to the naval, seafaring and trading capabilities of the Satavahanas during the 1st–2nd century CE.
The Pompeii Lakshmi ivory statuette was found in the ruin of Pompeii (destroyed in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE). It is thought to have come from Bhokardan in the Satavahana realm in the first half of the 1st century CE. It testifies to Indo-Roman trade relations in the beginning of our era.
Inscription of Gautamiputra Satakarni, Nasik Caves No.3, Inscription No.4. Circa 150 CE.
Satavahana architecture at Cave No.3 of the Pandavleni Caves in Nashik. This cave was probably started during the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni, and was finished and dedicated to the Buddhist Samgha during the reign of his son Vasishthiputra Pulumavi, circa 150 CE.
Royal earrings, Andhra Pradesh, 1st century BCE.
Architrave
Architrave
Yakshini.
Pillar capital.
Lion pillar capital.
The Miracle of Walking in the air at Savrasti.
Pipal tree.
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the River Nairanjana
Bimbisara with his royal cortege issuing from the city of Rajagriha to visit the Buddha.
Foreigners making a dedication to the Great Stupa at Sanchi.
Procession of king Suddhodana from Kapilavastu.
Satavahana 1st century BCE coin inscribed in Brahmi: "(Sataka)Nisa". British Museum
Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni ({{reign|167|196 CE}}).
Amaravati Marbles, fragments of Buddhist stupa
Fragment of Amaravati stupa
Mara's assault on the Buddha, 2nd century, Amaravati
Scroll supported by Indian Yaksha, Amaravati, 2nd–3rd century CE.

Satakarni's successor Satakarni II ruled for 56 years, during which he captured eastern Malwa from the Shungas.

Agnimitra

Agnimitra (अग्निमित्रः) ((r.

Man on a relief, Bharhut, Shunga period.

149 – 141 BCE)) was the second king of the Shunga dynasty of northern India.

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom

Hellenistic-era Greek state, and along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world in Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent from its founding in 256 BC by Diodotus I Soter to its fall c. 120–100 BC under the reign of Heliocles II.

Approximate maximum extent of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom circa 170 BC, under the reign of Eucratides the Great, including the regions of Tapuria and Traxiane to the West, Sogdiana and Ferghana to the north, Bactria and Arachosia to the south.
Gold coin of Diodotus c. 245 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΟΔΟΤΟΥ – "(of) King Diodotus".
Remains of a Hellenistic capital found in Balkh, ancient Bactra.
Asia in 200 BC, showing the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and its neighbors.
Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".
Silver tetradrachm of King Eucratides I 171–145 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ – "(of) King Great Eucratides".
Bilingual coin of Eucratides in the Indian standard, on the obverse Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ – "(of) King Great Eucratides", Pali in the Kharoshthi script on the reverse.
Gold 20 stater of Eucratides, the largest gold coin of Antiquity. The coin weighs 169.2 grams, and has a diameter of 58 millimeters.
The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 BC to AD 30
Gold artefacts of the Scythians in Bactria, at the site of Tillia tepe
Silver coin of Heliocles (r. 150–125 BC), the last Greco-Bactrian king. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΗΛΙΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ – "(of) King Heliocles the Just".
Coin of Eucratides I as a warrior holding a spear, obverse.
Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC
Stone block with the inscriptions of Kineas in Greek. Ai Khanoum.
Probable statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet, from a 3rd century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Ürümqi.
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription of Ashoka (in Greek and Aramaic), found in Kandahar. c. 250 BC, Kabul Museum.
One of the Hellenistic-inspired "flame palmettes" and lotus designs, which may have been transmitted through Ai-Khanoum. Rampurva bull capital, India, circa 250 BC.
Coin of Greco-Bactrian king Agathocles with Indian deities.
Indian coinage of Agathocles, with Buddhist lion and dancing woman holding lotus, possible Indian goddess Lakshmi.
Silver drachm of Menander I, dated circa 160–145 BC. Obverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ ('of King Menander the Saviour'), heroic bust of Menander, viewed from behind, head turned to left; Reverse: Athena standing right, brandishing thunderbolt and holding aegis, Karosthi legend around, monogram in field to left.
Bronze Herakles statuette. Ai Khanoum. 2nd century BC.
Sculpture of an old man, possibly a philosopher. Ai Khanoum, 2nd century BC.
Close-up of the same statue.
Frieze of a naked man wearing a chlamys. Ai Khanoum, 2nd century BC.
Gargoyle in the form of a Greek comic mask. Ai Khanoum, 2nd century BC.
Plate depicting Cybele pulled by lions. Ai Khanoum.
Ionic pillar, cella of the Temple of the Oxus, Takht-i Sangin, late 4th - early 3rd century BCE.<ref name=Litvin-Pichik-1994>{{cite journal |last1=Litvinskii |first1=B.A. |last2=Pichikian |first2=I.R. |title=The Hellenistic architecture and art of the Temple of the Oxus |journal=Bulletin of the Asia Institute |year=1994 |volume=8 |pages=47–66 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/24048765.pdf |issn=0890-4464}}</ref>
Head of a Greco-Bactrian ruler with diadem, Temple of the Oxus, Takht-i Sangin, 3rd–2nd century BCE. This could also be a portrait of Seleucus I.<ref name="OB27">{{cite journal |last1=Bopearachchi |first1=Osmund |title=A faience head of a Graeco-Bactrian king from Ai Khanum |journal=Bulletin of the Asia Institute |date=1998 |volume=12 |page=27 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/24049090 |issn=0890-4464}}</ref>
thumb|Hellenistic silenus Marsyas from Takhti Sangin, with dedication in Greek to the god of the Oxus, by "Atrosokes" (a Bactrian name). Temple of the Oxus, Takht-i Sangin, 200–150 BCE. Tajikistan National Museum.<ref name=Litvin-Pichik-1994/><ref name="RW2011">{{cite book |last1=Wood |first1=Rachel |title=Cultural convergence in Bactria: the votives from the Temple of the Oxus at Takht-i Sangin, in "From Pella to Gandhara" |date=2011 |publisher=Archaeopress |location=Oxford |pages=141-151 |url=https://www.academia.edu/3850105/Cultural_convergence_in_Bactria_the_votives_from_the_Temple_of_the_Oxus_at_Takht_i_Sangin}}</ref>
thumb|Alexander-Herakles head, Takht-i Sangin, Temple of the Oxus, 3rd century BCE.<ref name=Litvin-Pichik-1994/>

Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus, started an invasion of the subcontinent from 180 BC, a few years after the Mauryan empire had been overthrown by the Shunga dynasty.

Kanva dynasty

Kanvayana shown with other petty kingdoms of that time, along with the large kingdoms of the Satavahanas & Indo-Scythians.

The Kanva dynasty or Kanvayana that overthrew the Shunga dynasty in parts of eastern and central India, and ruled from 73 BCE to 28 BCE.

Indo-Greek Kingdom

Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan, the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent, (virtually all of modern Pakistan), and a small part of Iran.

Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar, Afghanistan.
According to the Mahavamsa, the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, was dedicated by a 30,000-strong "Yona" (Greek) delegation from "Alexandria" around 130 BC.
Greco-Bactrian statue of an old man or philosopher, Ai Khanoum, Bactria, 2nd century BC
Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC
Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".
Possible statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet, from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Urumqi.
Greco-Bactria and the city of Ai-Khanoum were located at the very doorstep of Mauryan India.
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Apollodotus I (180–160 BC) the first king who ruled in the subcontinent only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom.
Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The coinage of Agathocles (circa 180 BC) incorporated the Brahmi script and several deities from India, which have been variously interpreted as Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva, Balarama or the Buddha.
Kharoshthi legend on the reverse of a coin of Indo-Greek king Artemidoros Aniketos.
Menander I (155–130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman and Indian sources.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
King Hippostratos riding a horse, circa 100 BC (coin detail).
The Yavanarajya inscription discovered in Mathura, mentions its carving on "The last day of year 116 of Yavana hegemony" (Yavanarajya), or 116th year if the Yavana era, suggesting the Greeks ruled over Mathura as late as 60 BC. Mathura Museum.
The Mathura Herakles. A statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion from Mathura. Today in the Kolkota Indian Museum.
Possible statue of a Yavana/ Indo-Greek warrior with boots and chiton, from the Rani Gumpha or "Cave of the Queen" in the Udayagiri Caves on the east coast of India, where the Hathigumpha inscription was also found. 2nd or 1st century BC.
Heliocles (145–130 BC) was the last Greek king in Bactria.
Coin of Antialcidas (105–95 BC).
Coin of Philoxenos (100–95 BC).
Coin of Zoilos I (130–120 BC) showing on the reverse the Heraklean club with the Scythian bow, inside a victory wreath.
The Heliodorus pillar, commissioned by Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, is the first known inscription related to Vaishnavism in India. Heliodurus was one of the earliest recorded Indo-Greek converts to Hinduism.
Heliodorus travelled from Taxila to Vidisha as an ambassador of king Antialkidas, and erected the Heliodorus pillar.
The Bharhut Yavana, a possible Indian depiction of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 100 BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northwestern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the balusters
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I at Sanchi.
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Hermaeus (90–70 BC) was the last Indo-Greek king in the Western territories (Paropamisadae).
Hermaeus posthumous issue struck by Indo-Scythians near Kabul, circa 80–75 BC.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos, reigned circa 65–55 BC, was the last Indo-Greek king in Western Punjab.
Hippostratos was replaced by the Indo-Scythian king Azes I (r. c. 35–12 BC).
Approximate region of East Punjab and Strato II's capital Sagala.
The last known Indo-Greek kings Strato II and Strato III, here on a joint coin (25 BC-10 AD), were the last Indo-Greek king in eartern territories of Eastern Punjab.
Pillar of the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves, mentioning its donation by a Yavana. Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa AD 120.
The Buddhist symbols of the triratna and of the swastika (reversed) around the word "Ya-va-ṇa-sa" in Brahmi (Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpg Brahmi v 2nd century CE.gif Brahmi nn.svg Brahmi s.svg). Shivneri Caves 1st century AD.
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 143.
Piedestal of the Hashtnagar Buddha statue, with Year 384 inscription, probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 209.
Evolution of Zeus Nikephoros ("Zeus holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145–130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas 115–95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism (right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).
Indo-Corinthian capital representing a man wearing a Graeco-Roman-style coat with fibula, and making a blessing gesture. Butkara Stupa, National Museum of Oriental Art, Rome.
Evolution of the Butkara stupa, a large part of which occurred during the Indo-Greek period, through the addition of Hellenistic architectural elements.
Coin of Menander II (90–85 BC). "King Menander, follower of the Dharma" in Kharoshthi script, with Zeus holding Nike, who holds a victory wreath over an Eight-spoked wheel.
Greek Buddhist devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, Buner relief, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes, amphoras, wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, Gandhara, 1st century AD).
Intaglio gems engraved in the northwest of India (2nd century BCE-2nd century CE).
Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century (Ostasiatisches Museum, Berlin)
Stone palette depicting a mythological scene, 2nd–1st century BC.
Cupro-nickel coins of king Pantaleon point to a Chinese origin of the metal.
Athena in the art of Gandhara, displayed at the Lahore Museum, Pakistan
Strato I in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BC.
The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum).
Hellenistic couple from Taxila (Guimet Museum)
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. (British Museum).
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Exterior
Entrance pillars
Pillar capital
Interior
Standing Buddha
Philoxenus (c. 100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture.
Nicias making a blessing gesture.
Various blessing gestures: divinities (top), kings (bottom).

Pushyamitra Shunga then ascended the throne and established the Shunga Empire, which extended its control as far west as the Punjab.

Yona

The word Yona in Pali and the Prakrits, and the analogue "Yavana" in Sanskrit, are words used in Ancient India to designate Greek speakers.

The "Yona" Greek king of India Menander (160–135 BCE). Inscription in Greek: Bασιλέως Σωτῆρος Μενάνδρου, lit. "of Saviour King Menander".
The Achaemenid name for Ionian Greeks: Yauna (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎹𐎢𐎴) in the DNa inscription of Darius the Great, circa 490 BC.
Territories "conquered by the Dharma" according to Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka (260–218 BCE).
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name (underlined in color). Here the Greek rulers are described as "Yona" (Brahmi: Brahmi yo 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi n.svg, third and fourth letters after the first occurrence of Antigonus in red).
Dedication by a man of Greek descent on a wall of Cave 17 in the Nasik Caves (photograph and rubbing). Detail of the "Yo-ṇa-ka-sa" word (adjectival form of "Yoṇaka", Brahmi: Brahmi yo 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi nn.svgBrahmi letter Ka.svgBrahmi s.svg), with Nasik/Karla-period Brahmi script for reference. Circa 120 CE.
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I.
Left pillar No.9 of the Great Chatya at Karla Caves. This pillar was donated by a Yavana circa 120 CE, like five other pillars. The inscription of this pillar reads: "Dhenukakata Yavanasa/ Yasavadhanana[m]/ thabo dana[m]" i.e. "(This) pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Yasavadhana from Denukakata". Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" (adjectival form of "Yavana", old Brahmi script Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg).
Vedika pillar with possible Greek warrior (headband of a king, tunic etc...) from Bharhut. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c.100-80BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The façade of the Chaitya Hall at Manmodi Caves was donated by a Yavana, according to the inscription on the central flat surface of the lotus. Detail of the "Ya-va-na-sa" circular inscription in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa 120 CE.

This reference apparently alludes to chaotic political scenario following the collapse of the Maurya and Shunga Empires in northern India and its subsequent occupation by foreign hordes such as of the Yonas, Kambojas, Sakas and Pahlavas.

Mahabodhi Temple

Ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.

Mahabodhi Temple
Ashoka's Mahabodhi Temple and Diamond throne in Bodh Gaya, built c. 250 BCE. The inscription between the Chaitya arches reads: "Bhagavato Sakamunino/ bodho" i.e. "The building round the Bodhi tree of the Bhagavat(Holy) Sakamuni (Shakyamuni)". Also interesting to note is the word Bhagavat for Buddha, as Hindus consider him an incarnation of Vishnu who is also called Bhagavat. The elephant-crowned pillar of Ashoka (now lost) is visible. Bharhut frieze (c. 100 BCE).
Another relief of the early circular Mahabodhi Temple, Bharhut, c. 100 BCE.
Bodhi Tree
Discovery of the Diamond throne, built by Ashoka c. 250 BCE.
Reconstitution of the Sunga period pillars at Bodh Gaya, from archaeology (left) and from artistic relief (right). They are dated to the 1st century BCE. Reconstitution done by Alexander Cunningham.
The stupa finial on top of the pyramidal structure.
A statue of Mucalinda protecting the Buddha in Mucalinda Lake, Mahabodhi Temple
293x293px
The temple as it appeared in 1899, shortly after its restoration in the 1880s
Bodhgaya. Buddha image in the main temple.
Bodh Gaya quadriga relief of the sun god Surya riding between pillars (detail of a railing post), 2nd–1st century BCE.
The temple undergoing repairs (from January, 2006).
Bodh Gaya Chedi Replica at Wat Yansangwararam, Chonburi Province, Thailand
Bodh Gaya Sunga pillar.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
Bodh Gaya Sunga railing.
1903 photograph.
Bodh Gaya original railings, Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Bodh Gaya original railings, Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Railing post.
Another railing post.
Bodhi tree.
Bodhi Tree.
Dharmacakra.
Medallion.
Adoration of the Bodhi tree.
Elephant.
Centaur.
Horse.
Winged lion.
Cow nourishing her calf.
Bull.
The Jetavana Garden at Sravasti.
Padakusalamanava Jataka.<ref>The Padakusalamanava Jataka, in which a horse-headed ogress falls in love with one of her preys, and the Bodhisattva (the future Buddha) is born of their union. In: Didactic Narration: Jataka Iconography in Dunhuang with a Catalogue of Jataka Representations in China, Alexander Peter Bell, LIT Verlag Münster, 2000 pp. 15ff</ref>
Padakusalamanava Jataka.
Woman with child and goat.
Devotee and grottoe.
Amorous scene (drawing).
Amorous scene.
Miraculous River crossing.
Miraculous river-crossing (drawing)
Devotee and apsara.
Visit of Indra to the Indrasala Cave.
Kalpa drum.
Lakshmi lustrated by elephants.
Music scene.
Palace scene, Sibi Jataka.
Ploughing scene.
Devotee.
Devotee.
Devotee.
Apsara.
Apsara (drawing).
Vegetal medallion.
Plaster copy and reconstruction of original Sunga railing.
Railing.
Post relief (plaster copy).
Adoration of the wheel of the Law (plaster copy).
Flower Design decorated with gold leaves.
Decorated railing.

Representations of the early temple structure meant to protect the Bodhi tree are found at Sanchi, on the toraṇas of Stūpa I, dating from around 25 BCE, and on a relief carving from the stupa railing at Bhārhut, from the early Shunga period (c.

Greco-Buddhist art

Style of Buddhist visual art that developed in modern northwestern Pakistan in the ancient Gandhara civilization of the northwestern Indian subcontinent, It is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between Ancient Greek art and Buddhism.

Gandharan Buddha, 1st-2nd century AD
The Buddha and a naked Vajrapani in a frieze at Jamal Garhi, Gandhara.
Buddhist expansion in Asia: Mahayana Buddhism first entered the Chinese Empire (Han dynasty) through Silk Road during the Kushan Era. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
The Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BC.
Silver coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I (200–180 BC) wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquest of India. Back: Herakles, holding a lion skin and a club resting over the arm. The text reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ – BASILÉŌS DĒMĒTRÍOU "of King Demetrius".
Wine-drinking and music (Detail from Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, 1st–2nd century AD).
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks, while the railings were made by masons exclusively using marks in the local Brahmi script, now in Indian Museum. 150-100 BC.
Statues on the architraves of the torana gateway, associated with Kharosthi marks. 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the ballusters
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. British Museum.
The Titan Atlas, supporting a Buddhist monument, Hadda.
Seated Buddha in Hellenistic style, Tapa Shotor, 2nd century AD.
The Seated Buddha, dating from 300 to 500 AD, was found near Jamal Garhi, Pakistan, and is now on display at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco.
The Buddha teaching. Kushan period. National Museum, Delhi. 2004
An Indo-Corinthian capital from the Butkara Stupa under which a coin of Azes II was found. Dated to 20 BC or earlier (Turin City Museum of Ancient Art).
The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha, is dated to around 30–10 BC. British Museum.
Fresco describing Emperor Han Wudi (156–87 BC) worshipping two statues of the Buddha, Mogao Caves, Dunhuang, c. 8th century AD
Heracles depiction of Vajrapani as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century AD, Gandhara, British Museum.
The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century AD, Gandhara.
The Buddhist gods Pancika (left) and Hariti (right), 3rd century, Takht-i Bahi, Gandhara, British Museum.
Winged Cupids holding a wreath over the Buddha (left:detail), Hadda, 3rd century. Musée Guimet.
Gandhara frieze with devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, 1st-2nd century AD. Buner, Swat, Pakistan. Victoria and Albert Museum.
An Ichthyo-Centaur, 2nd century Gandhara, Victoria and Albert Museum.
An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd-3rd century AD, Gandhara.
A Buddhist coin of Kanishka I, with "Boddo" (=Buddha) in Greek script.
Balustrade-holding Yaksa with Corinthian columns, Madhya Pradesh (?), Shunga period (2nd-1st century BC). Musee Guimet.
Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 2nd century BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century, Mathura, 2nd-century AD.
A Bodhisattva, 2nd century, Mathura
Greek scroll supported by Indian Yaksas, Amaravati, 3rd century AD
A terracotta head of Buddha Shakyamuni, inspired by Greco-Buddhist art, Devnimori, Gujarat (375-400 AD).
The Buddha in long, heavy robe, a design derived from the art of Gandhara, Ajanta Caves, 5th century AD.
Buddha of the Gupta period, 5th century, Mathura.
Head of a Buddha, Gupta period, 6th century.
Head of a Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).
"Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva", 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).
Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, AD 443.
The Buddha, Asuka period, 7th century.
A Buddha in Kamakura (1252), reminiscent of Greco-Buddhist influences.
Temple tiles from Nara, 7th century.
Vine and grape scrolls from Nara, 7th century.
Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Cambodia 12th century.
Avalokiteshvara on the wall of Plaosan temple (Indonesia), Javanese Sailendran art, 9th century.
Nereid goddess riding a Ketos sea-monster, 2nd century BC, Sirkap.
Apollo and Daphne.
Couple with sea serpent.
Mythological scene with Athena and Herakles.
Poseidon with attendants. Ancient Orient Museum.
Aphrodite at her bath.
Man with cup in hand, riding a Ketos sea-monster.
Female triton, Tokyo National Museum
Friendly animals.
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p.171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Fragment of the wind god Boreas, Hadda, Afghanistan.
Gandharan Atalanta
Winged Atalante.
The Buddha, flanked by Herakles/ Vajrapani and Tyche/ Hariti.
Gandhara Poseidon (Ancient Orient Museum)
Triton
"Laughing boy" from Hadda
Head of a bodhisattva, Gandhara ca. 4th century
Maitreya, with Kushan devotee couple. 2nd century Gandhara.
Maitreya, with Kushan devotees, left and right. 2nd century Gandhara.
Maitreya, with Indian (left) and Kushan (right) devotees.
Kushans worshipping the Buddha's bowl. 2nd century Gandhara.
Kushan devotee couple, around the Buddha, Brahma and Indra.
The "Kanishka casket," with the Buddha surrounded by Brahma and Indra, and Kanishka on the lower part, AD 127.
Buddha triad and kneeling Kushan devotee couple. 3rd century.
Seated Buddha with halo and mandorla 5th-6th century Gandhara.
The Buddha with a radiate mandorla, Gandhara, 6th century
Last stages of Greco-Buddhist art. 7th century, Ghorband District, Afghanistan.

After the overthrow of the Maurya Empire by the Shunga Empire, which did not extend to the north-western corners of the Mauryan territories, many of the Greek satrapies continued to practice Buddhism and developed the Greco-Buddhist art.

Menander I

Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek King (reigned c.165 /155 –130 BC) who administered a large territory in the Northwestern regions of the Indian Subcontinent from his capital at Sagala.

Portrait of Menander I Soter, from his coinage
2. Silver drachm of Menander I (155-130 BC).
Obv: Greek legend, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROU) lit. "Of Saviour King Menander".
Rev: Kharosthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA MENAMDRASA "Saviour King Menander". Athena advancing right, with thunderbolt and shield. Taxila mint mark.
Another silver drachm of Menander I, dated circa 160-145 BC. Obverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ ('of King Menander the Saviour'), heroic bust of Menander, viewed from behind, head turned to left; Reverse: Athena standing right, brandishing thunderbolt and holding aegis, Karosthi legend around, monogram in field to left. Reference: Sear 7604.
Silver coin of Menander
Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ
(BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROU)
lit. "Of Saviour King Menander". British Museum.
King Milinda asks questions.
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
The Bharhut Yavana. Indian relief of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 2nd century BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Butkara stupa as expanded during the reign of Menander I.
4. Silver coin of Menander, with Athena on reverse. British Museum.
Coin of Menander II. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ, "Of King Menander, the Just".
Comparison of the portraits of Menander I (left) and Menander II (right).
Coin of Strato I and Agathokleia.
Obv: Conjugate busts of Strato and Agathokleia. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTEROS STRATONOS KAI AGATOKLEIAS "Of King Strato the Saviour and Agathokleia".
Rev: Athena throwing thunderbolt. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASARA DHARMIKASA STRATASA "King Strato, Saviour and Just (="of the Dharma")".
Vitarka Mudra gestures on Indo-Greek coinage. Top: Divinities Tyche and Zeus. Bottom: Depiction of Indo-Greek kings Nicias and Menander II.
Menander coin with elephant.
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I, Sanchi. Satavahana period, 2nd or 1st century BC.
One of the first known representations of the Buddha, Gandhara.
Detail of Asia in the Ptolemy world map. The "Menander Mons" are in the center of the map, at the east of the Indian subcontinent, right above the Malaysian Peninsula.
See picture

Menander may have campaigned as far as the Shunga capital Pataliputra resulting in a conflict.