Siad Barre

Mohamed Siad BarreMuhammad Siad BarreBarreMohammed Siad BarreSiad BarréMohamed Siyad BarrePresident Siad BarreSiyad BarreMahomed Siad BarreMaj. General Mohamed Siyad Barre
Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre (Jaale Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.wikipedia
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Somali Democratic Republic

SomaliaDemocratic Republic of SomaliaCommunist Somalia
Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre (Jaale Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991. The Supreme Revolutionary Council military junta under Barre reconstituted Somalia as a one-party Marxist–Leninist communist state, renaming the country the Somali Democratic Republic and adopting scientific socialism, with support from the Soviet Union.
The Somali Democratic Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Dimuqraadiya Soomaaliya, الجمهورية الديمقراطية الصومالية al-Jumhūrīyah ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah aṣ-Ṣūmālīyah, Repubblica Democratica Somala) was the name that the Marxist–Leninist military government gave to Somalia under President Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, after seizing power in a coup d'état on 21 October 1969.

Supreme Revolutionary Council (Somalia)

Supreme Revolutionary CouncilSomali Women's Democratic Organization1969–1976; 1980–1991
The Supreme Revolutionary Council military junta under Barre reconstituted Somalia as a one-party Marxist–Leninist communist state, renaming the country the Somali Democratic Republic and adopting scientific socialism, with support from the Soviet Union. The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC), a military junta led by Major General Barre, Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel, assumed power and filled the top offices of the government, with Kediye officially holding the title of "Father of the Revolution," although Barre shortly afterwards became the head of the SRC.
The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.

1969 Somali coup d'état

coup d'étatmilitary coup d'état1969 coup d'état
Barre, a major general of the gendarmerie, became President of Somalia after the 1969 coup d'état that overthrew the Somali Republic following the assassination of President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke.
The 1969 Somali coup d'état was the bloodless takeover of Somalia's government on 21 October 1969 by far-left military officers of the Supreme Revolutionary Council led by Siad Barre.

Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre (Jaale Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.

Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party

Secretary-general of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist PartySRSPSomalia
The Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party became Somalia's vanguard party in 1976, and Barre started the Ogaden War against Ethiopia on a platform of Somali nationalism and pan-Somalism.
SRSP was created by the military regime of Siad Barre under Soviet guidance.

Somali Rebellion

Somali Revolutioncollapseoverthrow
It declined from the late-1970s following Somalia's defeat in the Ogaden War, triggering the Somali Rebellion and severing ties with the Soviet Union.
The rebellion started in 1986 when Siad Barre began attacking clan-based dissident groups opposed to his rule with his special forces, the "Red Berets" (Duub Cas).

Isaaq genocide

destroyed much of the cityGenocide of Isaaqs
Opposition grew in the 1980s due to his increasingly dictatorial rule, growth of tribal politics, abuses of the National Security Service including the Isaaq genocide, and the sharp decline of Somalia's economy.
The Isaaq genocide or Hargeisa Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored massacre of Isaaq civilians between 1987 and 1989 by the Somali Democratic Republic under the dictatorship of Siad Barre.

Somali Civil War

civil warSomaliaSomalian Civil War
In 1991, Barre's government collapsed as the Somali Rebellion successfully ejected him from power, leading to the Somali Civil War, and forcing him into exile where he died in Nigeria in 1995.
It grew out of resistance to the military junta led by Siad Barre during the 1980s.

National Security Service (Somalia)

National Security ServiceNSSNational Security Agency
Opposition grew in the 1980s due to his increasingly dictatorial rule, growth of tribal politics, abuses of the National Security Service including the Isaaq genocide, and the sharp decline of Somalia's economy.
The NSS was formed as under government of Siad Barre in 1970, modelled after the KGB of the Soviet Union, and was formally dissolved in 1990 shortly before Barre's overthrow.

President of Somalia

PresidentSomali PresidentPresidents
Jaalle Mohamed Siad Barre (Jaale Maxamed Siyaad Barre; محمد سياد بري; October 6, 1919 – January 2, 1995) was a Somali politician who served as the President of the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 to 1991.
Since then the office has been held by seven further people: Abdirashid Ali Shermarke, Mohamed Siyad Barre, Ali Mahdi, Abdiqasim Salad, Abdullahi Yusuf, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, and Hassan Sheikh Mohamud.

Mogadishu

Mogadishu, SomaliaMogadiscioMuqdisho
Barre's parents died when he was ten years old, and after receiving his primary education in the town of Luuq in southern Italian Somalia he moved to the capital Mogadishu to pursue his secondary education.
After the ousting of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 and the ensuing Somali Civil War, various militias fought for control of the city, later to be replaced by the Islamic Courts Union in the mid-2000s.

Somalis

SomaliSomali peopleSomali clan
Mohamed Siad Barre was born on October 6, 1919, near Shilavo, a town in the predominately Somali-populated Ogaden region of the Ethiopian Empire, into the Somali Marehan Darod clan and the sub-clan of Rer Dini.
The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.

Ogaden War

Ethio-Somali WarOgaden campaign1977–1978 conflict with Ethiopia
The Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party became Somalia's vanguard party in 1976, and Barre started the Ogaden War against Ethiopia on a platform of Somali nationalism and pan-Somalism.
The coup was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.

Shilavo

Shilabo
Mohamed Siad Barre was born on October 6, 1919, near Shilavo, a town in the predominately Somali-populated Ogaden region of the Ethiopian Empire, into the Somali Marehan Darod clan and the sub-clan of Rer Dini.
==The former President of nearby Somalia, Maj. General Mohamed Siyad Barre, was born in Shilavo, although he later claimed he was born in Garbahaarreey so he would be eligible to serve in the Italian colonial police force.

Salaad Gabeyre Kediye

The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC), a military junta led by Major General Barre, Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel, assumed power and filled the top offices of the government, with Kediye officially holding the title of "Father of the Revolution," although Barre shortly afterwards became the head of the SRC.
The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.

Somali Republic

SomaliaRepublic of Somalia1960 independence
Barre, a major general of the gendarmerie, became President of Somalia after the 1969 coup d'état that overthrew the Somali Republic following the assassination of President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke.
The coup was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.

Abdirashid Shermarke

Abdirashid Ali ShermarkeAbdirashid Ali SharmarkeA. A. Shermarke
Barre, a major general of the gendarmerie, became President of Somalia after the 1969 coup d'état that overthrew the Somali Republic following the assassination of President Abdirashid Ali Shermarke.
The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Muhammad Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.

Darod

HartiDaroodAbsame
Mohamed Siad Barre was born on October 6, 1919, near Shilavo, a town in the predominately Somali-populated Ogaden region of the Ethiopian Empire, into the Somali Marehan Darod clan and the sub-clan of Rer Dini.

Scientific socialism

scientific socialistsocialismScientific
The Supreme Revolutionary Council military junta under Barre reconstituted Somalia as a one-party Marxist–Leninist communist state, renaming the country the Somali Democratic Republic and adopting scientific socialism, with support from the Soviet Union.

Somali Youth League

SYL
In 1946, Barre supported the Somali Conference (Conferenza Somala), a political group of parties and clan associations that were hostile to the Somali Youth League and were supported by the local Italian farmers.
A military coup quickly ensued, with Siad Barre now assuming leadership.

Constitution of Somalia

constitutionProvisional ConstitutionFederal Constitution
A new constitution was promulgated in 1979 under which elections for a People's Assembly were held.
The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) that assumed power was led by Major General Siad Barre.

Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan

Mohammed Said Hersi "MorganHersi "MorganHersi Morgan
The bombardment was led by General Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan, Barre's son-in-law, and resulted in the deaths of 50,000 people in the north.
He is the son-in-law of Siad Barre and Minister of Defense of Somalia.

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
Barre advocated the concept of a Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn), which refers to those regions in the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis reside and have historically represented the predominant population.
In July 1977, the Ogaden War broke out after the government of President of Somalia Siad Barre sought to incorporate the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia.

Zaptié

ZaptiepolicemenZaptié of Eritrea
In 1935, Barre enrolled in the Italian colonial police as a Zaptié despite being ineligible as he was born in Ethiopia, instead claiming to have been born in Garbahaareey in order to qualify.
After World War II, a former member of the zaptìé corps, Siad Barre, became President of Somalia from 1969 to 1991.

Somali Salvation Democratic Front

SSDFDemocratic Front for Salvation of SomaliaSomali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF)
Among the militia groups that led the rebellion were the Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), United Somali Congress (USC), Somali National Movement (SNM) and the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), together with the non-violent political oppositions of the Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), the Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA) and the Somali Manifesto Group (SMG).
Founded in 1978 by several army officers, it was the first of several opposition groups dedicated to ousting the authoritarian regime of Mohamed Siad Barre.