Siberia

SiberianEastern SiberiaEast SiberiaSiberia, RussiaSibirSiberian RussiaWestern SiberiaEast SiberianSiberian coastAsian part of Russia
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia.wikipedia
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North Asia

Northern AsiaAsian RussiaNorthern
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes also referred to as Siberia, is a sub-region of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions east of the Ural Mountains: Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East.

Western Siberia

West SiberiaWestern
The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts, Western and Eastern.
Western Siberia or West Siberia is a part of the greater Siberia and mostly located in the Russian Federation.

Yenisei River

YeniseiYeniseyYenisey River
The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts, Western and Eastern.
It is the central of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob and the Lena).

Arctic Ocean

ArcticArctic SeaArctic coast
between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China.
At this time, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to north west North America (Alaska), leading to the Settlement of the Americas.

Paleosiberian languages

PaleosiberianPaleo-SiberianPaleo-Siberian languages
Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the (also "Syopyr" (sʲɵpᵻr)), an ethnic group which spoke a Paleosiberian language.
Paleosiberian (or Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian (Paleo-Asiatic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, "ancient") are terms of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of linguistic isolates as well as a few small families of languages spoken in parts both of northeastern Siberia and of the Russian Far East.

Turkic languages

TurkicTurkic languageTurkic-speaking
He suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with Turkic origin, "su" (water) and "bir" (wild land).
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia.

Kolyma River

KolymaRiver KolymaKolyma drainage
Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs, Yuka the mammoth and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, and bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
The Kolyma River is a river in northeastern Siberia, whose basin covers parts of the Sakha Republic, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, and Magadan Oblast of Russia.

Woolly mammoth

Mammuthus primigeniuswooly mammothwoolly mammoths
Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs, Yuka the mammoth and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, and bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
The appearance and behaviour of this species are among the best studied of any prehistoric animal because of the discovery of frozen carcasses in Siberia and Alaska, as well as skeletons, teeth, stomach contents, dung, and depiction from life in prehistoric cave paintings.

Yuka (mammoth)

Yuka MammothYuka
Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs, Yuka the mammoth and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, and bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
In August 2010, the well-preserved carcass, known as Yuka, of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799) was found along the Oyogos Yar coast approximately 30 km west of the mouth of the Kondratievo River, Siberia (72° 40′ 49.44″ N, 142° 50′ 38.35″) in the region of the Laptev Sea.

Siberian Traps

Siberianvolcanic origins
The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history.
The Siberian Traps (Сибирские траппы, Sibirskiye trappy) is a large region of volcanic rock, known as a large igneous province, in Siberia, Russia.

Gulag

gulagslabor campsprison camps
Worldwide, Siberia is well known primarily for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C (−13 °F), as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet governments as a place for prisons, labor camps, and internal exile.
The Russian Empire and the Tsar first invented the exile in Siberia as a punishment within the judicial system: Katorga, a category of punishment within the judicial system of the Russian Empire, had many of the features associated with labor-camp imprisonment: confinement, simplified facilities (as opposed to prisons), and forced labor, usually involving hard, unskilled or semi-skilled work.

Eurasia

EurasianEurasian continentWestern Eurasia
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia.
Eurasia formed 375 to 325 million years ago with the merging of Siberia, Kazakhstania, and Baltica, which was joined to Laurentia, now North America, to form Euramerica.

Denisovan

DenisovansDenisova homininHomo denisova
At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, and the Denisovans.
In 2010, scientists announced the discovery in an Altai permafrost cave of a finger bone of a juvenile female found in the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, a cave that has also been inhabited by Neanderthals and modern humans.

Xiongnu

Xiongnu EmpireSouthern XiongnuNorthern Xiongnu
During past millennia different groups of nomads – such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Xiongnu, the Scythians and the Uyghurs inhabited various parts of Siberia.
The Xiongnu were also active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang.

Mongol Empire

MongolMongolsMongolian Empire
In the 13th century, during the period of the Mongol Empire, the Mongols conquered a large part of this area.
Originating in Mongolia, the Mongol Empire eventually stretched from Eastern Europe and parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending northwards into parts of Siberia; eastwards and southwards into the Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia and the Iranian Plateau; and westwards as far as the Levant and the Carpathian Mountains.

Lake Baikal

BaikalBaikal LakeLake Baykal
Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century.
Lake Baikal (, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake located in southern Siberia, Russia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

Golden Horde

Kipchak KhanateUlus of JochiHorde
With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir formed in the late-15th century.
The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia.

Khanate of Sibir

Siberia KhanateSiberian KhanateSibir
With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir formed in the late-15th century. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate.
The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Turkic Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol ruling class.

Mongolia

MongolRepublic of MongoliaMongolian
Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China.
Under his successors it stretched from present-day Poland in the west to Korea in the east, and from parts Siberia in the north to the Gulf of Oman and Vietnam in the south, covering some 33000000 km2, (22% of Earth's total land area) and had a population of over 100 million people (about a quarter of Earth's total population at the time).

Mangazeya

Mangaseya
Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara, Yeniseysk and Tobolsk developed, the last becoming the de facto capital of Siberia from 1590.
Mangazeya was a Northwest Siberian trans-Ural trade colony and later city in the 17th century.

Tobolsk

Battle of TobolskTobolsk Kremlin
Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara, Yeniseysk and Tobolsk developed, the last becoming the de facto capital of Siberia from 1590. In 630 the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria.
Founded in 1590, Tobolsk is the second oldest Russian settlement east of the Ural Mountains in Asian Russia, and is a historic capital of the Siberia region.

Cossacks

CossackUkrainian CossacksUkrainian Cossack
First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area.
Together, they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia (see Yermak Timofeyevich) and the Yaik (Ural) and the Terek rivers.

Enets people

Enets
During past millennia different groups of nomads – such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Xiongnu, the Scythians and the Uyghurs inhabited various parts of Siberia.
Historically nomadic people, they now mainly inhabit the village of Potapovo in Krasnoyarsk Krai in western Siberia near the Arctic Circle.

Russian Far East

Soviet Far EastFar EastFar East Russia
Between 1859 and 1917 more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East.
The Russian Far East (, literally "The distant East of Russia") is a region in North Asia which includes the Russian part of the Far East, the easternmost territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

Permafrost

discontinuous permafrostcontinuous permafrostsporadic permafrost
The region has paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or in permafrost.
Exceptions occur in un-glaciated Siberia and Alaska where the present depth of permafrost is a relic of climatic conditions during glacial ages where winters were up to 11 C-change colder than those of today.