Siege of Detroit

Detroitsurrender of DetroitBattle of Detroitsurrendered DetroitCapture of Detroitsurrenderattacked Fort DetroitBattle of Fort Detroitcapture Fort DetroitCapture of Detroit, Michigan Territory
The Siege of Detroit, also known as the Surrender of Detroit or the Battle of Fort Detroit, was an early engagement in the British-U.S.wikipedia
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War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
The Siege of Detroit, also known as the Surrender of Detroit or the Battle of Fort Detroit, was an early engagement in the British-U.S. War of 1812.
American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale.

Isaac Brock

Sir Isaac BrockGeneral Isaac BrockBrock
A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.
When the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit defeated American invasion efforts.

William Hull

Brigadier General William Hull's unsuccessful invasionBrigadier-General William HullGen. Hull
A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians. Michigan Territory Governor William Hull urged President James Madison and Secretary of War William Eustis to form an army which would secure the Northwest Territory against Indians who were being incited by British agents and fur trading companies to take up arms against the United States.
He is most widely remembered, however, as the general in the War of 1812 who surrendered Fort Detroit to the British on August 16, 1812 following the Siege of Detroit.

Shawnee

Shawnee IndiansShawneesShawnee people
A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.
After William Hull's surrender of Detroit to the British during the War of 1812, General William Henry Harrison was given command of the U.S. Army of the Northwest.

James Findlay (Cincinnati mayor)

James Findlay
His army consisted of three regiments of Ohio militia under Colonels Lewis Cass, Duncan McArthur, and James Findlay.
He marched north with General William Hull, and opposed Hull's disastrous decision to surrender Detroit.

William Eustis

Eustis
Michigan Territory Governor William Hull urged President James Madison and Secretary of War William Eustis to form an army which would secure the Northwest Territory against Indians who were being incited by British agents and fur trading companies to take up arms against the United States.
When the war began poorly with the surrender of General William Hull at Detroit, Eustis was severely criticized.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
Michigan Territory Governor William Hull urged President James Madison and Secretary of War William Eustis to form an army which would secure the Northwest Territory against Indians who were being incited by British agents and fur trading companies to take up arms against the United States.
The American invasion of Canada suffered a major setback when General William Hull surrendered to British and Native American forces at the Siege of Detroit, and a separate U.S. force was defeated at the Battle of Queenston Heights.

Tecumseh

Shawnee chiefChief TecumsehPucksinwah
A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.
(Tecumseh's brother "The Prophet" is depicted with a nose ring in Lossing's book —as well as by .) Apart from Tecumseh's "gala dress" (at a celebration of the Surrender of Detroit) Lossing referred to, also his face may not be rendered faithfully—no fully authenticated portrait of the Shawnee leader exists.

Detroit River

Detroitriverthe river
On 2 July, the unsuspecting Cayahoga was captured by, a Canadian-manned armed brig of the Provincial Marine near the British post at Amherstburg, Ontario at the foot of the Detroit River.
During the War of 1812, the Detroit River served as a major barrier between the American Michigan Territory and British Upper Canada, especially during the Battle of Fort Detroit in August 1812, when Detroit briefly fell to the British.

Canadian units of the War of 1812

Glengarry Light InfantryIndian DepartmentCanadian Fencibles
The first was composed of 50 men of the Royal Newfoundland Fencibles and some Lincoln and Kent militia; the second consisted of 50 men of the 41st Regiment with York, Lincoln, Oxford, and Norfolk militia; the third was formed from the main body of the 41st (200 men) and 50 men of the Royal Artillery with five field guns (three 6-pounders and two 3-pounders).
They fought as such throughout the war, serving at the siege of Detroit, the battle of York, the siege of Fort Meigs and other engagements.

Provincial Marine

On 2 July, the unsuspecting Cayahoga was captured by, a Canadian-manned armed brig of the Provincial Marine near the British post at Amherstburg, Ontario at the foot of the Detroit River.

Battle of Queenston Heights

Queenston HeightsQueenstonQueenstown
Brock was killed at the ensuing Battle of Queenston Heights while leading a hasty counter-attack to recover a battery which had been captured by the Americans.
Hull was besieged in Detroit and, fearing a massacre by Britain's Native American allies, surrendered the town and his entire army following the Siege of Detroit.

Battle of Lake Erie

Lake ErieBattle of Put-in-BayBattle of Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie
American attempts to regain Detroit were continually thwarted by poor communications and the difficulties of maintaining militia contingents in the field, until the Americans won a naval victory at the Battle of Lake Erie on 10 September 1813.
The British Major-General Isaac Brock used his control of the lake to defeat Hull's army at the Siege of Detroit, by cutting the American supply lines and rapidly transferring himself and some reinforcements to Amherstburg from where they launched a successful landing on the American side of the Detroit River.

Adam Muir (British Army officer)

Adam Muir
Miller forced a British and Indian force under Major Adam Muir of the 41st Regiment to retreat some distance at the Battle of Maguaga on 9 August, but the British re-formed their line and he declined to resume the attack.
Muir was wounded at Maguaga, but recovered to lead the main body of the 41st at the Siege of Detroit.

Detroit

Detroit, MichiganDetroit, MICity of Detroit
A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.
Detroit surrendered without a fight to British troops during the War of 1812 in the Siege of Detroit.

Siege of Fort Mackinac

Battle of Mackinac IslandMackinac IslandBattle of Mackinac Island (1812)
On 17 July, a mixed force of British regulars, Canadian fur traders, and Indians captured the important trading post of Mackinac Island on Lake Huron from its small American garrison who were not aware that war had been declared.
Their hostility influenced the U.S. surrender at the Siege of Detroit shortly afterwards.

HMS Detroit (1812)

AdamsDetroitAdams (brig)
Among the booty and military stores surrendered were 33 cannon, 300 rifles, 2,500 muskets, and the brig Adams, the only armed American vessel on the Upper Lakes.
On 16 August 1812, General William Hull surrendered Detroit after a siege by British forces.

William Henry Harrison

William H. HarrisonHarrisonWilliam Harrison
Hull's successor Major General William Henry Harrison pursued the retreating British and their Indian allies and defeated them at the Battle of the Thames, where Tecumseh was killed.
The Americans suffered a defeat in the Siege of Detroit.

Roger Hale Sheaffe

General Sir Roger Hale SheaffeRoger SheaffeSir Roger Sheaffe
His successor Major General Roger Hale Sheaffe led the British in driving the Americans from their positions on the heights and capturing several hundred American soldiers.
While Brock was absent, dealing with an American army at the Siege of Detroit, Sheaffe was required by Prevost to negotiate an armistice with the American forces on the opposite side of the river.

Porter Hanks

The British bombardment killed seven Americans before the surrender, including Lieutenant Porter Hanks, the former commander of Fort Mackinac who was awaiting a court martial.
Soon after Hanks's arrival, another British column attacked Fort Detroit.

Tecumseh's Confederacy

American Indian Confederacyconfederacygroup of Indian tribes
In 1812 Tecumseh's warriors, as shock troops, assisted a small force of 700 British regulars and Canadian militia to force the surrender of 2,500 American soldiers, by threatening to massacre any captives of the Siege of Detroit.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.

Fort Shelby (Michigan)

Fort DetroitFort LernoultFort Shelby
A British force under Major General Isaac Brock with American Indian allies under Shawnee leader Tecumseh used bluff and deception to intimidate U.S. Brigadier General William Hull into surrendering the fort and town of Detroit, Michigan, along with his dispirited army which actually outnumbered the victorious British and Indians.

Upper Canada

UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper Canadian
The British victory reinvigorated the militia and civil authorities of Upper Canada, who had previously been pessimistic and affected by pro-U.S. agitators.

Northwest Territory

Old NorthwestTerritory Northwest of the River OhioNorthwest
Michigan Territory Governor William Hull urged President James Madison and Secretary of War William Eustis to form an army which would secure the Northwest Territory against Indians who were being incited by British agents and fur trading companies to take up arms against the United States. Many Indians in the Northwest Territory were inspired to take arms against U.S. outposts and settlers.