Siege of Petersburg

The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Gen.
<center>Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.

Series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 9, 1864, to March 25, 1865, during the American Civil War.

- Siege of Petersburg

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James Longstreet

One of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse".

Antebellum portrait of Longstreet
Sketch of Longstreet as a Confederate
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Longstreet circa 1862
A map of the Battle of Fredericksburg
Longstreet at Gettysburg c. undefined 1900
Gettysburg, July 2
Pickett's Charge, July 3
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Carte de Visite portrait of Longstreet
James Longstreet after the war
James Longstreet after the war
James Longstreet in later life (1896), affecting the sideburns of his opponent at Fredericksburg and Knoxville
Longstreet's grave
Equestrian statue of General Longstreet on his horse Hero in Pitzer Woods at Gettysburg National Military Park

He later returned to the field, serving under Lee in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox campaign.

John Gibbon

Career United States Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars.

Gibbon (right), with his II corps commander Hancock (sitting) and fellow division commanders Barlow (left) and Birney (center standing) during the Wilderness campaign
Gibbon (far left) at Lee's surrender at Appomattox (Zoom)
Gibbon and Chief Joseph
John Gibbon's grave at Arlington National Cemetery

During the subsequent Siege of Petersburg campaign (June 1864 to April 1865), Gibbon became disheartened when his troops refused to fight at Ream's Station in August 1864.

United States Colored Troops

The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were regiments in the United States Army composed primarily of African-American (colored) soldiers, although members of other minority groups also served within the units.

USCT recruiting poster
USCT soldiers at an abandoned farmhouse in Dutch Gap, Virginia, 1864
Colored Troops singing "John Brown's Body" as they marched into Charleston, South Carolina, in February 1865. Note the attitude of the local population, and the white officers.
Union soldier in uniform with family; he has been identified as Sgt. Samuel Smith of the 119th USCT
250x250px
Escaped slave, Gordon (also called "Whipped Peter"), in USCT uniform
Captain Francis Jackson Meriam, 3rd South Carolina Colored Infantry
U.S. Colored Troops medal issued by General Benjamin Butler
African-American corporal (United States Colored Troops)outside 8 Whitehall Street, Atlanta, a slave auction house; Fall 1864
Printed broadside, calling all men of color to arms, 1863
Sgt Major Christian Fleetwood. Civil War, Medal of Honor recipient
3rd US Colored Troops banner {obverse}
22th US Colored Troops banner
24th US Colored Troops banner
26th US Colored Troops banner
27th US Colored Troops banner
45th US Colored Troops banner
Harriet Tubman with family and ex-slaves; sitting at left is Tubmans 2nd husband Nelson Davis (8th USCT veteran)

The most famous USCT action took place at the Battle of the Crater during the Siege of Petersburg.

X Corps (Union Army)

Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War.

X Corps badge
Union Army 1st Division Badge, X Corps

It served during operations in South Carolina in the Department of the South, and later in Benjamin Butler's Army of the James, during the Bermuda Hundred and Petersburg Campaigns.

Valley campaigns of 1864

The Valley campaigns of 1864 began as operations initiated by Union Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant and resulting battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia during the American Civil War from May to October 1864.

Shenandoah Valley operations, May&ndash;July 1864
The ruins of the Virginia Military Institute after Hunter's Raid in 1864.
Shenandoah Valley operations, August&ndash;October 1864
Sheridan's final charge at Winchester

After his missions of neutralizing Early and suppressing the Valley's military-related economy, Sheridan returned to assist Grant at Petersburg.

Ambrose Burnside

American army officer and politician who became a senior Union general in the Civil War and three times Governor of Rhode Island, as well as being a successful inventor and industrialist.

Ambrose Burnside, circa 1880
Mrs. Burnside, Mary Richmond Bishop
General Ambrose Burnside.
Burnside (seated, center) and officers of the 1st Rhode Island at Camp Sprague, Rhode Island, 1861
Burnside Bridge at Antietam in 2005
Union General Ambrose Burnside, 1862
Engraving of General Burnside in full dress uniform
Petersburg Crater, 1865
Burnside's grave in Swan Point Cemetery, Providence, Rhode Island
Studio photograph of Gen. Ambrose Burnside taken sometime between 1860 and 1862. Photograph shows his unusual sideburns.
Equestrian monument in Burnside Park, Providence, Rhode Island.

After North Anna and Cold Harbor, he took his place in the siege lines at Petersburg.

P. G. T. Beauregard

Confederate general officer of Louisiana Creole descent who started the American Civil War by leading the attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
A one-story Creole plantation home
Pierre G. T. Beauregard as a young man, painting by Richard Clague
U.S. Army Major P.G.T. Beauregard
The Battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847
The Battle of Chapultepec, 13 September, 1847
The 1861 George Peter Alexander Healy portrait of Beauregard in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington
Confederate General P. Gustave Toutant Beauregard
The Battle of Fort Sumter, April 12–13, 1861
The Battle of First Manassas, July 21, 1861
Start of the First Battle of Bull Run
The Battle of Shiloh, April 6–7, 1862
Map of the Battle of Shiloh, afternoon of April 6, 1862, after Beauregard took command
A Confederate ironclad
A Confederate submarine, Dec. 6, 1863
The Battle of Cold Harbor, May 31 – June 12, 1864
Beauregard's defense of Petersburg, Federal assaults of June 15–18
The Battle of Nashville, December 15–16, 1864
Beauregard, later in life
Beauregard revolutionized New Orleans with his cable cars
Beauregard, civil rights advocate
The White League, a Democratic white supremacist paramilitary terrorist organization
The White League barricading a New Orleans road
The first African-American and Republican governor of Louisiana, Pinckney Pinchback of Georgia
The Battle of Liberty Place, September 14, 1874
Caesar Antoine, a Louisiana Creole and Republican lieutenant governor of Louisiana
New Orleans in the 1870's
General P.G.T. Beauregard Equestrian Statue in New Orleans (2008) by sculptor Alexander Doyle

Beauregard continued commanding the defenses of Petersburg in the early days of the siege, but with the loss of the Weldon Railroad in the Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18–21), he was criticized for not attacking more forcefully and he became dissatisfied with the command arrangements under Lee.

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

The second major battle in Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's 1864 Overland Campaign of the American Civil War.

Battle of Spottsylvania, Thure de Thulstrup
Map of Southeastern Virginia.
Union marches and operations in Central Virginia (1864-65).
Spotsylvania Courthouse, 1864
Attacks on the Laurel Hill line, May 8
<center>Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick, VI Corps</center>
Positions and movements on the Union flanks, May 9
Grant attacks, May 10
Grant attacks, May 10 (additional map).
Upton's brigade attacks
Grant's grand assault, May 12
Grant's grand assault, May 12 (additional map)
"The Battle of Spottsylvania" by Kurz & Allison
The Bloody Angle site
<center>Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, Army of the Potomac</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock, II Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, V Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, IX Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan, Cavalry Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson, First Corps</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, Second Corps</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, Third Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, Cavalry Corps</center>
This unidentified, dead Confederate soldier of Ewell's Corps was killed during their attack at Alsop's farm. He was wounded in both the right knee and left shoulder, and probably died from loss of blood.
Confederate killed in Ewell's attack May 19, 1864, on the Alsop farm. This photograph was taken just to the right and in front of the preceding photograph.
Confederate dead of General Ewell's Corps who attacked the Union lines on May 19 lined up for burial at the Alsop Farm.

The armies then faced each other for nine months in the Siege of Petersburg.

Richmond and Petersburg Railroad

The Richmond and Petersburg Railroad moved passengers and goods between Richmond and Petersburg from 1838 to 1898.

The Proposed Richmond and Petersburg Railroad with the Chesterfield Railroad bringing coal in from Western Chesterfield. The "coal mines" post office was established in November 1811 with a name change to "Black Heath" post office in 1851 after coal was discovered in other parts of the county to the south.
In 1848, the Chesterfield Railroad is no longer shown and the Clover hill is shown connecting to coal mines, the Clover Hill Pits.
Richmond & Petersburg locomotive destroyed in the fall of Richmond, April 1865
Richmond and Petersburg Railroad Bridge after it was destroyed by Confederate Troops.
Map from 1891 showing the stops on the Stops on the Richmond and Petersburg.
Former Centralia Station of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad
1862 Map Showing the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad with the connection to the Clover Hill and other Railroads.

Towards the end of the war, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant tried to cut off the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, which was the supply line to Richmond, in the Siege of Petersburg.

Bermuda Hundred campaign

Series of battles fought at the town of Bermuda Hundred, outside Richmond, Virginia, during May 1864 in the American Civil War.

Federal earthworks at Bermuda Hundred
During the Civil War, the Confederacy was generally able to keep the Union troops west of the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, with the main exception being the Bermuda Hundred campaign of 1864.

Butler's forces were eventually used in the Siege of Petersburg.