Sigmoid colon

sigmoidsigmoid flexurecolon sigmoideumcolon, sigmoidpelvic colonsigmoid or pelvic colon
The sigmoid colon (or pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.wikipedia
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Rectum

rectalrectallyrectal ampulla
The sigmoid colon (or pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
The adult human rectum is about 12 cm long, and begins at the rectosigmoid junction, the end of the sigmoid colon, at the level of the third sacral vertebra or the sacral promontory depending upon what definition is used.

Pelvic cavity

lesser pelvisgreater pelvistrue pelvis
The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right side of the pelvis.
The pelvic cavity primarily contains reproductive organs, the urinary bladder, the pelvic colon, and the rectum.

Iliac colon

The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right side of the pelvis. The sigmoid colon is completely surrounded by peritoneum (and thus is not retroperitoneal), which forms a mesentery (sigmoid mesocolon), which diminishes in length from the center toward the ends of the loop, where it disappears, so that the loop is fixed at its junctions with the iliac colon and rectum, but enjoys a considerable range of movement in its central portion.
It begins at the level of the iliac crest, where it is continuous with the descending colon, and ends in the sigmoid colon at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis.

Abdominal cavity

abdominalabdomenabdominal (peritoneal) cavity
This part of the colon normally lies within the pelvis, but on account of its freedom of movement it is liable to be displaced into the abdominal cavity.
The three most important mesenteries are mesentery for the small intestine, the transverse mesocolon, which attaches the back portion of the colon to the abdominal wall, and the sigmoid mesocolon which enfolds the sigmoid colon.

Mesentery

mesentericmesenteriestransverse mesocolon
The sigmoid colon is completely surrounded by peritoneum (and thus is not retroperitoneal), which forms a mesentery (sigmoid mesocolon), which diminishes in length from the center toward the ends of the loop, where it disappears, so that the loop is fixed at its junctions with the iliac colon and rectum, but enjoys a considerable range of movement in its central portion.
The sigmoid mesocolon is that region of the mesentery to which the sigmoid colon is attached at the gastrointestinal mesenteric margin.

Sacral plexus

sacralsacral plexaSacral plexopathy
Behind the sigmoid colon are the external iliac vessels, overy, obturator nerve, the left Piriformis, and left sacral plexus of nerves.
In front of it are the internal iliac artery, internal iliac vein, the ureter, and the sigmoid colon.

Uterus

wombuterineuteri
In front, it is separated from the bladder in the male, and the uterus in the female, by some coils of the small intestine.
The uterus is located within the pelvic region immediately behind and almost overlying the bladder, and in front of the sigmoid colon.

Sigma

Σlunate sigmafinal sigma
The loop is typically shaped like a Greek letter sigma or Latin letter S (thus sigma + -oid).

Diverticulosis

Colonic diverticulaDiverticular diseasediverticulosis, colonic
Diverticulosis often occurs in the sigmoid colon in association with increased intraluminal pressure and focal weakness in the colonic wall.
They typically occur in the sigmoid colon, which is a common place for increased pressure.

Peritoneum

peritonealintraperitonealparietal peritoneum
The sigmoid colon is completely surrounded by peritoneum (and thus is not retroperitoneal), which forms a mesentery (sigmoid mesocolon), which diminishes in length from the center toward the ends of the loop, where it disappears, so that the loop is fixed at its junctions with the iliac colon and rectum, but enjoys a considerable range of movement in its central portion.

Large intestine

coloncolorectallarge bowel
The sigmoid colon (or pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
In mammals, the colon consists of six sections: the cecum plus the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum.

Volvulus

strangulationintestinal volvulusmidgut volvulus
Volvulus occurs when a portion of the bowel twists around its mesentery, which can lead to obstruction and infarction.
The most commonly affected part of the intestines in adults is the sigmoid colon with the cecum being second most affected.

Hindgut

hind-gut
In mammals, it includes the distal third of the transverse colon and the splenic flexure, the descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
The alimentary tract in the abdomen consists of the lower esophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the jejunum, ileum, the cecum and the appendix, the ascending, transverse and descending colons, the sigmoid colon and the rectum.

Anus

analperianalanal opening
The sigmoid colon (or pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.

Suffix

suffixesendingsuffixation
The loop is typically shaped like a Greek letter sigma or Latin letter S (thus sigma + -oid).

Pelvis

pelvicpelvic girdlehip
This part of the colon normally lies within the pelvis, but on account of its freedom of movement it is liable to be displaced into the abdominal cavity.

Pelvic inlet

superior apertureApertura pelvis superior
The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right side of the pelvis.

Sacrum

sacralsacral vertebraesacral vertebra
The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right side of the pelvis.

S

See belowſ
(The name sigmoid aptly means S-shaped.)

Retroperitoneal space

retroperitoneumretroperitonealretro-peritoneal organs
The sigmoid colon is completely surrounded by peritoneum (and thus is not retroperitoneal), which forms a mesentery (sigmoid mesocolon), which diminishes in length from the center toward the ends of the loop, where it disappears, so that the loop is fixed at its junctions with the iliac colon and rectum, but enjoys a considerable range of movement in its central portion.

Pelvic splanchnic nerves

pelvic splanchnic nervenervi erigentespelvic nerves
Pelvic splanchnic nerves are the primary source for parasympathetic innervation.

Parasympathetic nervous system

parasympatheticparasympathetic nerveparasympathetic nerves
Pelvic splanchnic nerves are the primary source for parasympathetic innervation.

Lumbar splanchnic nerves

lumbar splanchnic nerve
Lumbar splanchnic nerves provide sympathetic innervation via the inferior mesenteric ganglion.

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
Lumbar splanchnic nerves provide sympathetic innervation via the inferior mesenteric ganglion.