Signal integrity

signal qualityhigh-speed data linkshigh-speed digitalinterfering signalsnoise which might lead to functional failuresReceive Equalizationsignal
Signal integrity or SI is a set of measures of the quality of an electrical signal.wikipedia
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Signal

signalselectrical signalelectrical signals
Signal integrity or SI is a set of measures of the quality of an electrical signal.
The prevention of noise is covered in part under the heading of signal integrity.

Crosstalk

cross-talkcross talkleakage
Some of the main issues of concern for signal integrity are ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce, distortion, signal loss, and power supply noise.
See signal integrity for tools used to measure and prevent this problem, and substrate coupling for a discussion of crosstalk conveyed through the integrated circuit substrate.

Charge sharing

Create a list of expected noise events, including different types of noise, such as coupling and charge sharing. Accurate noise modeling is a must. Create a list of expected noise events, including different types of noise, such as coupling and charge sharing. Input Output Buffer Information Specification (IBIS) or circuit models may be used to represent drivers and receivers.
In digital electronics, charge sharing is an undesirable signal integrity phenomenon observed most commonly in the Domino logic family of digital circuits.

Design closure

Timing/design closure
This type of issue must be addressed as part of design flows and design closure.
As a result, a modern VLSI designer must consider the performance of a chip against a list of dozens of design constraints and objectives including performance, power, signal integrity, reliability, and yield.

Circuit extraction

layout extractionextractedparasitic extraction
Perform a layout extraction to get the parasitics associated with the layout. Usually worst-case parasitics and best-case parasitics are extracted and used in the simulations. For ICs, unlike PCBs, physical measurement of the parasitics is almost never done, since in-situ measurements with external equipment are extremely difficult. Furthermore, any measurement would occur after the chip has been created, which is too late to fix any problems observed.
This extracted circuit is needed for various purposes including circuit simulation, static timing analysis, signal integrity, power analysis and optimization, and logic to layout comparison.

Noise margin

Technology scaling has led to lower threshold voltages for MOS transistors, and has also reduced the difference between threshold and supply voltages, thereby reducing noise margins.
Signal integrity

Eye pattern

eye diagrameye diagram testseye openings
Run SPICE simulations. Analyze the simulation results and decide whether any re-design is required. It is common to analyze the results with an eye pattern and by calculating a timing budget.
Signal integrity

Emphasis (telecommunications)

pre-emphasispreemphasisEmphasis
Examples of mitigation techniques for these impairments are a redesign of the via geometry to ensure an impedance match, use of differential signaling, and preemphasis filtering, respectively.
In high speed digital transmission, pre-emphasis is used to improve signal quality at the output of a data transmission.

Input/output Buffer Information Specification

IBIS
Accurate noise modeling is a must. Create a list of expected noise events, including different types of noise, such as coupling and charge sharing. Input Output Buffer Information Specification (IBIS) or circuit models may be used to represent drivers and receivers.
Traditional IBIS models are generally used instead of SPICE models to perform various board level signal integrity (SI) simulations and timing analyses.

Differential signaling

differentialdifferential pairdifferential signals
Examples of mitigation techniques for these impairments are a redesign of the via geometry to ensure an impedance match, use of differential signaling, and preemphasis filtering, respectively.
Signal integrity

Power integrity

Providing sufficient ground (and power) connections to limit ground bounce (this subdiscipline of signal integrity is sometimes called out separately as power integrity)
Signal integrity

Electromagnetic interference

interferenceradio frequency interferenceradio interference
Electromagnetic interference
Signal integrity

Digital electronics

digital circuitdigitaldigital technology
In digital electronics, a stream of binary values is represented by a voltage (or current) waveform.

Analog signal

analoganalogueanalogue signal
However, digital signals are fundamentally analog in nature, and all signals are subject to effects such as noise, distortion, and loss.

Noise (electronics)

noiseelectronic noiseelectrical noise
However, digital signals are fundamentally analog in nature, and all signals are subject to effects such as noise, distortion, and loss.

Distortion

distortedharmonic distortiondistort
Some of the main issues of concern for signal integrity are ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce, distortion, signal loss, and power supply noise. However, digital signals are fundamentally analog in nature, and all signals are subject to effects such as noise, distortion, and loss.

Bit rate

bitratedata ratedata transfer rate
At high bit rates and over longer distances or through various mediums, various effects can degrade the electrical signal to the point where errors occur and the system or device fails.

Integrated circuit packaging

die attachmentpackagedpackage
It is an important activity at all levels of electronics packaging and assembly, from internal connections of an integrated circuit (IC), through the package, the printed circuit board (PCB), the backplane, and inter-system connections.

Backplane

backplanesmidplanebackwiring boards
It is an important activity at all levels of electronics packaging and assembly, from internal connections of an integrated circuit (IC), through the package, the printed circuit board (PCB), the backplane, and inter-system connections.

Ringing (signal)

ringingpre-ringingring
Some of the main issues of concern for signal integrity are ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce, distortion, signal loss, and power supply noise.

Ground bounce

Some of the main issues of concern for signal integrity are ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce, distortion, signal loss, and power supply noise. Providing sufficient ground (and power) connections to limit ground bounce (this subdiscipline of signal integrity is sometimes called out separately as power integrity)

Power supply

power suppliesPSUpower supply unit
Some of the main issues of concern for signal integrity are ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce, distortion, signal loss, and power supply noise.

Transatlantic telegraph cable

transatlantic cableAtlantic cabletransatlantic cables
The first transatlantic telegraph cable suffered from severe signal integrity problems, and analysis of the problems yielded many of the mathematical tools still used today to analyze signal integrity problems, such as the telegrapher's equations.

Telegrapher's equations

telegrapher's equationtransmission line theorytelegraph equations
The first transatlantic telegraph cable suffered from severe signal integrity problems, and analysis of the problems yielded many of the mathematical tools still used today to analyze signal integrity problems, such as the telegrapher's equations.

Crossbar switch

crossbarcross-bar switchmatrix switch
Products as old as the Western Electric crossbar telephone exchange (circa 1940), based on the wire-spring relay, suffered almost all the effects seen today - the ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce, and power supply noise that plague modern digital products.