Signal reflection

reflectionreflectionsreflectedreflected signalEchoechoeselectrical impedance discontinuityreflected wavereflected wavesreflecting
Signal reflection occurs when a signal is transmitted along a transmission medium, such as a copper cable or an optical fiber.wikipedia
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Reflections of signals on conducting lines

discontinuitiesdiscontinuityreflection
Signal reflection occurs when a signal is transmitted along a transmission medium, such as a copper cable or an optical fiber.
This article is about signal reflections on electrically conducting lines.

Impedance matching

matching networkimpedance matchmatching
The ratio of energy bounced back depends on the impedance mismatch. When a sufficient degree of impedance matching is not practical, echo suppressors or echo cancellers, or both, can sometimes reduce the problems.
In electronics, impedance matching is the practice of designing the input impedance of an electrical load or the output impedance of its corresponding signal source to maximize the power transfer or minimize signal reflection from the load.

Standing wave

standing wavesstationary wavestationary waves
Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation, attenuation distortion, standing waves, ringing and other effects because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo.
Such a standing wave may be formed when a wave is transmitted into one end of a transmission line and is reflected from the other end by an impedance mismatch, i.e., discontinuity, such as an open circuit or a short.

Forward echo

These forward echoes strike the receiver at different intervals making it difficult for the receiver to accurately detect data values on the signal.
Forward echo: In a transmission line, a reflection propagating in the same direction as the original wave and consisting of energy reflected back by one discontinuity and then forward again by another discontinuity.

Time-domain reflectometer

time domain reflectometertime-domain reflectometer (TDR)electro-optical terahertz pulsed reflectometry
Because damage to the cable can cause reflections, an instrument called an electrical time-domain reflectometer (ETDR; for electrical cables) or an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR; for optical cables) can be used to locate the damaged part of a cable.
In order to measure those reflections, the TDR will transmit an incident signal onto the conductor and listen for its reflections.

Ringing (signal)

ringingpre-ringingring
Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation, attenuation distortion, standing waves, ringing and other effects because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo.
Ringing can be due to signal reflection, in which case it may be minimized by impedance matching.

Attenuation distortion

attenuation
Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation, attenuation distortion, standing waves, ringing and other effects because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo.
In DSL circuits, echoes due to impedance mismatch often cause attenuation distortion so severe that some frequencies must be automatically mapped out and not used.

Echo suppression and cancellation

echo cancellationecho cancellerecho suppressor
When a sufficient degree of impedance matching is not practical, echo suppressors or echo cancellers, or both, can sometimes reduce the problems.
Signal reflection

Bergeron diagram

The Bergeron Diagram method, valid for both linear and non-linear models, evaluates the reflection's effects in an electric line.
Signal reflection

Optical fiber

fiber opticfiber opticsfibre optic
Signal reflection occurs when a signal is transmitted along a transmission medium, such as a copper cable or an optical fiber.

Electrical impedance

impedanceimpedancescomplex impedance
This happens because imperfections in the cable cause impedance mismatches and non-linear changes in the cable characteristics.

Radio frequency

RFradio frequenciesradio-frequency
In radio frequency (RF) practice this is often measured in a dimensionless ratio known as voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) with a VSWR bridge.

Standing wave ratio

SWRvoltage standing wave ratioVSWR
In radio frequency (RF) practice this is often measured in a dimensionless ratio known as voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) with a VSWR bridge.

Reflection coefficient

reflection amplitudecoefficient of reflectioncoefficients of reflection
Mathematically, it is defined using the reflection coefficient.

Attenuation

attenuateattenuatedattenuating
Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation, attenuation distortion, standing waves, ringing and other effects because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo.

Transmitter

radio transmittertransmittersradio transmitters
Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation, attenuation distortion, standing waves, ringing and other effects because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo.

Radio receiver

receiverreceiversRadios
Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation, attenuation distortion, standing waves, ringing and other effects because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo.

Echo

echoesechoedechoing
Impedance discontinuities cause attenuation, attenuation distortion, standing waves, ringing and other effects because a portion of a transmitted signal will be reflected back to the transmitting device rather than continuing to the receiver, much like an echo.

Daisy chain (electrical engineering)

daisy chaindaisy-chaindaisy-chained
This is a fundamental problem with the daisy chain method of connecting electronic components.

Optical time-domain reflectometer

optical time-domain reflectometryoptical time domain reflectometer
Because damage to the cable can cause reflections, an instrument called an electrical time-domain reflectometer (ETDR; for electrical cables) or an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR; for optical cables) can be used to locate the damaged part of a cable.

Data link

datalinklinkdata-link
The combination of the effects of signal attenuation and impedance discontinuities on a communications link is called insertion loss.

Insertion loss

loss
The combination of the effects of signal attenuation and impedance discontinuities on a communications link is called insertion loss.

Characteristic impedance

impedancecharacteristicimpedances
Proper network operation depends on constant characteristic impedance in all cables and connectors, with no impedance discontinuities in the entire cable system.