Signals intelligence

SIGINTELINTelectronic intelligenceCOMINTcommunications intelligencesignal intelligenceintercepted and decrypted German radio trafficsignalscode-breakingSignal Intelligence Agency
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).wikipedia
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Traffic analysis

traffic analyststraffic-flow securitytraffic
Traffic analysis—the study of who is signaling whom and in what quantity—is also used to integrate information again.
In a military context, traffic analysis is a basic part of signals intelligence, and can be a source of information about the intentions and actions of the target.

Y-stations

Y-stationY ServiceY Station
An interception service known as 'Y' service, together with the post office and Marconi stations grew rapidly to the point where the British could intercept almost all official German messages.
Y-stations were British signals intelligence collection sites established during the First World War and used again during the Second World War.

Intelligence collection management

Collectioncensorscollect intelligence
Signals intelligence is a subset of intelligence collection management.

GCHQ

Government Communications HeadquartersGovernment Code and Cypher SchoolGovernment Code and Cypher School (GC&CS)
The Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) was the first peace-time codebreaking agency, with a public function "to advise as to the security of codes and cyphers used by all Government departments and to assist in their provision", but also with a secret directive to "study the methods of cypher communications used by foreign powers". The combined effort of intercepts and cryptanalysis for the whole of the British forces in World War II came under the code name "Ultra" managed from Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park.
Government Communications Headquarters, commonly known as GCHQ, is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.

Zimmermann Telegram

Zimmerman TelegramAmerican entry into the waran actual plan
However its most astonishing success was in decrypting the Zimmermann Telegram, a telegram from the German Foreign Office sent via Washington to its ambassador Heinrich von Eckardt in Mexico.
The decryption was described as the most significant intelligence triumph for Britain during World War I, and one of the earliest occasions on which a piece of signal intelligence influenced world events.

Enigma machine

EnigmaEnigma codeEnigma cipher machine
Properly used, the German Enigma and Lorenz ciphers should have been virtually unbreakable, but flaws in German cryptographic procedures, and poor discipline among the personnel carrying them out, created vulnerabilities which made Bletchley's attacks feasible.
Many commentators say the flow of communications intelligence from Ultra's decryption of Enigma, Lorenz and other ciphers shortened the war significantly and may even have altered its outcome.

Ultra

Ultra secret ULTRA Special Liaison Unit
The combined effort of intercepts and cryptanalysis for the whole of the British forces in World War II came under the code name "Ultra" managed from Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.

List of intelligence gathering disciplines

intelligence gatheringintelligence-gatheringintelligence
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).

Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence

FISINT
FISINT (Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence) is a sub-category of SIGINT, monitoring primarily non-human communication.
Since it deals with signals that have communicational content, it is a subset of COMINT, which, in turn, is a subset of SIGINT.

Boeing RC-135

RC-135RC-135 Rivet JointCobra Ball
Larger intercept aircraft, such as the EP-3 or RC-135, have the on-board capability to do some target analysis and planning, but others, such as the RC-12 GUARDRAIL, are completely under ground direction.
The next variant ordered was the RC-135B, to be used as an electronic intelligence aircraft to replace the Boeing RB-47H Stratojet, an SIGINT platform.

Lockheed EP-3

EP-3EEP-3E Aries IIEP-3
Larger intercept aircraft, such as the EP-3 or RC-135, have the on-board capability to do some target analysis and planning, but others, such as the RC-12 GUARDRAIL, are completely under ground direction.
In April 2001 an aerial collision between a United States Navy EP-3E ARIES II, a signals reconnaissance version and a People's Liberation Army Navy J-8IIM fighter resulted in an international incident between the United States and China.

Measurement and signature intelligence

MASINTIRINTcues
Traffic analysis is the discipline of drawing patterns from information flow among a set of senders and receivers, whether those senders and receivers are designated by location determined through direction finding, by addressee and sender identifications in the message, or even MASINT techniques for "fingerprinting" transmitters or operators.
MASINT may have aspects of intelligence analysis management, since certain aspects of MASINT, such as the analysis of electromagnetic radiation received by signals intelligence, are more of an analysis technique than a collection method.

Herbert Yardley

Herbert O. YardleyH. O. YardleyHerbert Osborne Yardley
The US Cipher Bureau was established in 1919 and achieved some success at the Washington Naval Conference in 1921, through cryptanalysis by Herbert Yardley.
The book outlined the history of the first U.S. Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) organization, described the activities of MI-8 during World War I and the American Black Chamber in the 1920s, and illustrated the basic principles of signals security.

Radar MASINT

Non-Cooperative Target Recognitioncounterartillery radarGround Surveillance Radar
An inventory of ELINT sources might identify the medium- and long-range counter-artillery radars in a given area.
Radar MASINT is a subdiscipline of measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) and refers to intelligence gathering activities that bring together disparate elements that do not fit within the definitions of signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT), or human intelligence (HUMINT).

Direction finding

radio direction findingradio direction-findingdirection-finding
Traffic analysis is the discipline of drawing patterns from information flow among a set of senders and receivers, whether those senders and receivers are designated by location determined through direction finding, by addressee and sender identifications in the message, or even MASINT techniques for "fingerprinting" transmitters or operators.
For the military, RDF is a key tool of signals intelligence.

Radiofrequency MASINT

Black CrowElectromagnetic Pulse (EMP) MASINTelectromagnetic radiation
Direction-finding and radio frequency MASINT could help confirm that the traffic is not deception.
Radiofrequency MASINT is one of the six major disciplines generally accepted to make up the field of Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT), with due regard that the MASINT subdisciplines may overlap, and MASINT, in turn, is complementary to more traditional intelligence collection and analysis disciplines such as SIGINT and IMINT.

United States Department of Defense

Department of DefenseU.S. Department of DefenseUS Department of Defense
Department of Defense manages the nation's coordinating authorities and assets in disciplines of signals intelligence, geospatial intelligence, and measurement and signature intelligence, and also builds, launches and operates the Intelligence Community's satellite assets.

Beechcraft C-12 Huron

C-12 HuronC-12MC-12W
Larger intercept aircraft, such as the EP-3 or RC-135, have the on-board capability to do some target analysis and planning, but others, such as the RC-12 GUARDRAIL, are completely under ground direction.
The MC-12W was rushed into combat as a supplemental surveillance and signals intelligence asset; since its first combat mission on 10 June 2009, the aircraft flew 400,000 combat hours in 79,000 combat sorties, aiding in the kill or capture of "more than 8,000 terrorists" and uncovering 650 weapons caches.

High-frequency direction finding

HF/DFHF Direction FindingHuff-Duff
(See HF/DF.) Knowing the compass bearing, from a single point, to the transmitter does not locate it.
The basic technique remains in use to this day as one of the fundamental disciplines of signals intelligence, although typically incorporated into a larger suite of radio systems and radars instead of being a stand-alone system.

ECHELON

Echelon (signals intelligence)FORNSATMargaret Newsham
ECHELON, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program (signals intelligence/SIGINT collection and analysis network) operated by the United States with the aid of four other signatory states to the UKUSA Security Agreement: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, also known as the Five Eyes.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The use of SIGINT had even greater implications during World War II.
Development of SIGINT (signals intelligence) and cryptanalysis enabled the countering process of decryption.

Human intelligence (intelligence gathering)

HUMINThuman intelligenceintelligence
Human intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT and sometimes pronounced as hyoo-mint) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).

Radio Reconnaissance Platoon

Radio Reconnaissance TeamRadio ReconU.S. Marine Corps Radio Reconnaissance Platoon
A Radio Reconnaissance Team (RRT) was assigned as the tactical signals intelligence collection element for the Marine Corps Special Operations Command, Detachment One.

Signals intelligence by alliances, nations and industries

advanced intelligenceintelligenceSingapore counterterrorism and ASEAN counterterrorism training center
''For the unifying conceptual and technical factors in this intelligence discipline, see Signals intelligence.

Non-communications signals

Its primary focus lies on non-communications signals intelligence.
Non-communications signals are signals such as radar emissions that are not intended to carry a communication, yet can provide valuable information in the context of signals intelligence (SIGINT) and electronic signals intelligence (ELINT).