Sikh Empire

PunjabSikhSikhsSikh KingdomSikh ruleSikh Empire, PunjabSikh eraSikh GovernmentSikh Khalsa RajSikh Period
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj or Sarkar-i Khalsa ) was a state originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.wikipedia
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Ranjit Singh

Maharaja Ranjit SinghMaharajah Ranjit SinghMaharaja Ranjeet Singh
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj or Sarkar-i Khalsa ) was a state originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh (13 November 1780 – 27 June 1839) was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.

Lahore

Lahore, PakistanLahore, PunjabLahore Subah
The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls. The Sikh Empire was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital, Multan, also in Punjab, Peshawar and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849. In 1799 Ranjit Singh moved the capital to Lahore from Gujranwala, where it had been established in 1763 by his grandfather, Charat Singh.
Lahore eventually became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, and regained much of its lost grandeur.

Misl

Sikh ConfederacymislsSikh Misls
The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.
In order to withstand the persecution of Shah Jahan and other Mughal rulers, several of the later Sikh Gurus established military forces and fought the Mughal Empire and Hindu hill chiefs in the early and middle Mughal-Sikh Wars.

Kashmir

Pakistan administered KashmirKashmir regionPakistan-administered Kashmir
At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. The Sikh Empire was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital, Multan, also in Punjab, Peshawar and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849.
That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.

Peshawar

Peshawar, PakistanPeshwarPurushapura
The Sikh Empire was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital, Multan, also in Punjab, Peshawar and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849.
The city was an important trading centre during the Mughal era before serving as the winter capital of the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1757 until the city was captured by the Sikh Empire in 1818, who were then followed by the British in 1849.

Tibet

TibetanGreater TibetThibet
At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north.
In 1834 the Sikh Empire invaded and annexed Ladakh, a culturally Tibetan region that was an independent kingdom at the time.

Khalsa

AmritdhariKhalsa PanthKhalsa Sikh
The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.
The Dal Khalsa fought against the Mughals and the Afghans, eventually resulting in the establishment of a number of small republics called misls (autonomous confederacies) and later in the formation of the Sikh Empire.

Anglo-Sikh wars

Anglo-Sikh War1849defeated
Finally, by 1849 the state was dissolved after the defeat in the Anglo-Sikh wars.
The Anglo-Sikh wars were a series of 1840s conflicts between the British East India Trading Company and the Sikh Empire.

List of countries by population in 1800

180019th most populous country at the time
Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831 (making it the 19th most populous country at the time), it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British.

Multan

MooltanMultan, PakistanMultan City
The Sikh Empire was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital, Multan, also in Punjab, Peshawar and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849.
The revolt eventually resulted in the fall of the Sikh Empire in 1849.

Cis-Sutlej states

Cis-SutlejCis-Sutlej Hill Statescis-Sutlej region
The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of Sikh states in the Punjab region lying between the Sutlej River to the north, the Himalayas to the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi district to the south, and Sirsa District to the west.
An 1809 agreement with Ranjit Singh, emperor of the Sikh Empire west of the Sutlej, brought the states under the aegis of Sikh dominion.

Hari Singh Nalwa

General Hari Singh NalwaHariJarnail Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa
Hari Singh Nalwa was Commander-in-Chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army from 1825 to 1837.
Hari Singh Nalwa (Nalua) (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Fauj, the army of the Sikh Empire.

Patiala State

PatialaMaharaja Amar SinghMinister of State
The Cis-Sutlej states included Kalsia, Kaithal, Patiala State, Nabha State, Jind State, Thanesar, Maler Kotla, Ludhiana, Kapurthala State, Ambala, Ferozpur and Faridkot State, among others.
The Patiala state saw more than forty years of ceaseless power struggle with the Afghan Durrani Empire, Maratha Empire, and the Sikh Empire of Lahore.

Gujranwala

Gujranwala CityGujranwala RegionGujranwalla
In 1799 Ranjit Singh moved the capital to Lahore from Gujranwala, where it had been established in 1763 by his grandfather, Charat Singh.
The city served as the capital of the Sukerchakia Misl state between 1763 and 1799, and is the birthplace of the founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Treaty of Amritsar (1809)

Treaty of AmritsarTreaty of Amritsar, 1809
While these Sikh states had been set up by the Dal Khalsa, they did not become part of the Sikh Empire and there was a mutual ban on warfare following the treaty of Amritsar in 1809 (in which the empire forfeited the claim to the Cis-Sutlej States, and the British were not to interfere north of the Sutlej or in the empire's existing territory south of the Sutlej), following attempts by Ranjit Singh to wrest control of these states from the British between 1806 and 1809 The Sikh crossing of the Sutlej, following British militarization of the border with Punjab (from 2,500 men and six guns in 1838 to 17,612 men and 66 guns in 1844, and 40,523 men and 94 guns in 1845), and plans on using the newly conquered territory of Sindh as a springboard to advance on the Sikh-held region of Multan, would eventually result in conflict with the British.
The Treaty of Amritsar of 1809 was an agreement between the British East India Company and Ranjit Singh, the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire.

Durrani Empire

DurraniAfghan EmpireDurranis
With the Mughals significantly weakened, the Sikh army, known as the Dal Khalsa, a rearrangement of the Khalsa inaugurated by Guru Gobind Singh, led expeditions against them and the Afghans in the west.
In 1762, Ahmad Shah crossed the passes from Afghanistan for the sixth time to subdue the Sikhs.

Sikhism

SikhSikhsSikh religion
The Sikh religion began around the time of the conquest of Northern India by Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire.
The creation of a Sikh Empire began when Guru Gobind Singh sent a Sikh general, Banda Singh Bahadur, to fight the Mughal rulers of India and those who had committed atrocities against Pir Buddhu Shah.

Majha

Bari DoabBariMajhi
An estimated 90% of the Sikh population at the time, and more than half of the total population, was concentrated in the upper Bari, Jalandhar, and upper Rechna Doabs, and in the areas of their greatest concentration formed about one third of the population in the 1830s; half of the Sikh population of this core region was in the area covered by the later districts of Lahore and Amritsar.
The Sikh Empire was founded in the Majha region, and so the region is also sometimes referred to as "the cradle of the brave Sikhs."

Aurangzeb

AurangazebEmperor AurangzebAurengzeb
The foundations of the Sikh Empire can be traced to as early as 1707, the year of Aurangzeb's death and the start of the downfall of the Mughal Empire.
Guru Gobind Singh's formation of Khalsa in 1699 led to the establishment of the Sikh Confederacy and later Sikh Empire.

Battle of Jamrud

Battle of JamrodBattle of Jamrud (1837)
The Battle of Jamrud was fought between the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Sikh Empire on 30 April 1837.

Punjab, Pakistan

PunjabPunjab ProvincePunjab (Pakistan)
In the subsequent centuries, Punjab was invaded and conquered by the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Delhi Sultanate, Mughals, Durranis and the Sikhs.

Punjab

Punjab regionPanjabPunjabi
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj or Sarkar-i Khalsa ) was a state originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
The 19th century definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849.

Punjab, India

PunjabIndian PunjabPunjab state
This confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Dogra–Tibetan War

Sino-Sikh WarTreaty of Chushulbriefly
The Dogra–Tibetan War or Sino-Sikh War was fought from May 1841 to August 1842, between the forces of the Dogra nobleman Gulab Singh of Jammu, under the suzerainty of the Sikh Empire, and Tibet under the suzerainty of Qing China.

Zaman Shah Durrani

Zaman ShahShah ZamanKing Zaman Shah Durrani
The formation of the empire began with the capture of Lahore, by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, from its Afghan ruler, Zaman Shah Durrani, and the subsequent and progressive expulsion of Afghans from the Punjab, by defeating them in the Afghan-Sikh Wars, and the unification of the separate Sikh misls.