Sikh gurus

A miniature painting, dated 1890, depicting an "imaginary portrait" of the 
ten Gurus and others.

The Sikh Gurus (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਗੁਰੂ) are the spiritual masters of Sikhism, who established this religion over the course of about two and a half centuries, beginning in 1469.

- Sikh gurus

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Guru Nanak

19th-century mural painting from Gurdwara Baba Atal depicting Nanak
The Gurdwara Janam Asthan in Nankana Sahib, Pakistan, commemorates the site where Nanak is believed to have been born.
Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartar Pur in Narowal, Pakistan marks the site where Guru Nanak is said to have died.
The 4 Udasis and other locations visited by Guru Nanak
The abandoned Gurudwara Chowa Sahib, located near the Rohtas Fort in Pakistan, commemorates the site where Guru Nanak is popularly believed to have created a water-spring during one of his udasis
Guru Nanak's handprint is believed to be preserved on a boulder at the Gurdwara Panja Sahib in Hasan Abdal, Pakistan.
Coin from 1747 CE depicting Guru Nanak with his two disciples, Bhai Mardana and Bhai Bala waving a chaur (fly-whisk) as a mark of respect.
Bhai Mani Singh's Janamsakhi

Gurū Nānak (Punjabi pronunciation:, ; 15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539), also referred to as Bābā Nānak ('father Nānak'), was the founder of Sikhism and is the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.


Indian religion founded in the 15th century CE.

The khanda, symbol of Sikhism
An Akali-Nihang Sikh Warrior at Harmandir Sahib, also called the Golden Temple
A rare Tanjore-style painting from the late 19th century depicting the ten Sikh Gurus with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana
The interior of the Akal Takht
Approximate Life Spans and Guruship Spans of the 10 Sikh Gurus
Gurū Granth Sāhib – the primary scripture of Sikhism
Mul Mantar written by Guru Har Rai, showing the Ik Onkar at top.
A group of Sikh musicians called Dhadi at the Golden Temple complex
The Dasam Granth is a Sikh scripture which contains texts attributed to Guru Gobind Singh, including his autobiography Bachittar Natak. The major narrative in the text is on Chaubis Avtar (24 Avatars of Hindu god Vishnu), Rudra, Brahma, the Hindu warrior goddess Chandi and a story of Rama in Bachittar Natak.
The Darbar Sahib of a Gurdwara
Sikh wedding
Sikh funeral procession, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
Guru Nanak explaining Sikh teachings to Sadhus
Sikh Light Infantry personnel march past during the Republic day parade in New Delhi, India
Sikhs in London protesting against the Indian government
Namdhari Sikhs, also called the Kuka Sikhs are a sect of Sikhism known for their crisp white dress and horizontal pagari (turban). Above: Namdhari singer and musicians.
Nagar Kirtan in Bangalore
Sikhs celebrating Vaisakhi in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi. The long window under the marble platform is the location where Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed by the Mughals.
Artistic rendering of the execution of Bhai Mati Das by the Mughals. This image is from a Sikh Ajaibghar near the towns of Mohali and Sirhind in Punjab, India.
Sculpture at Mehdiana Sahib of the execution of Banda Singh Bahadur in 1716 by the Mughals.
Some bodyguards of Maharaja Ranjit Singh at the Sikh capital, Lahore, Punjab.

Sikhism developed from the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the faith's first guru, and the nine Sikh gurus who succeeded him.


Sikhs ( or ; ਸਿੱਖ, ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Gurdwara Janam Asthan, the birthplace of Guru Nanak
The Samadhi of Emperor Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan
The Golden Temple
A Sikh Khalsa Army sowar's battle helmet
Sikh armour and weapons
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan: three of the five Sikh articles of faith
Woman playing the dilruba
India's Sikh population and their percentage of the total population
Map showing world Sikh population areas and historical migration patterns (2004 estimate)
A group of Sikh people
Sikhs in the First World War, marching with their scripture, Guru Granth Sahib
French postcard depicting the arrival of the 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I; the bilingual postcard reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten the German hooligans"
Indian sikh soldiers in Italian campaign
Sikh soldier with captured Swastika flag of Nazi Germany
Japanese soldiers shooting blindfolded Sikh prisoners in World War II
Sikhs in London protesting against Indian government actions
Opaque watercolour-on-paper Nakashi art; about 1880, by an unknown artist from Lahore or Amritsar, and used to decorate the walls of Harmandir Sahib
Darbar Sahib, circa 1870

During the rule of the Mughal Empire in India, 2 Sikh gurus were martyred.

Guru Granth Sahib

Illuminated Guru Granth Sahib folio with nisan (Mul Mantar) of Guru Nanak
A folio from an early 19th-century manuscript copy of the Guru Granth Sahib (Schoyen Collection Norway)
Map showing birthplace of various contributors of Guru Granth Sahib
The end part of the handwritten Adi Granth by Pratap Singh Giani on the first floor of the Golden Temple
A Granthi reciting from Guru Granth Sahib

The Guru Granth Sahib (ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, ) is the central holy religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign and eternal Guru following the lineage of the ten human gurus of the religion.

Guru–shishya tradition

The guru–shishya tradition, or parampara ("lineage"), denotes a succession of teachers and disciples in Indian-origin religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism (including Tibetan and Zen traditions).

The traditional guru–disciple relationship. Watercolour, Punjab Hills, India, 1740.
Ekalavya's dakshina of his right hand thumb to his guru.
Teacher and his disciple from mahabharata

Sikhism denominations and Sikh gurus

May 5

553 – The Second Council of Constantinople begins.

The Battle of Mons Lactarius (553)

1479 – Guru Amar Das, Indian 3rd Sikh Guru (d. 1574)

May 30

70 – Siege of Jerusalem: Titus and his Roman legions breach the Second Wall of Jerusalem. Jewish defenders retreat to the First Wall. The Romans build a circumvallation, cutting down all trees within fifteen kilometres.

Progress of the Roman army during the siege.

1606 – Guru Arjan Dev, fifth of the Sikh gurus (b. 1563)

Meaning of life

Meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general.

Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, one of Post-Impressionist Paul Gauguin's most famous paintings
DNA, the molecule containing the genetic instructions for the development and functioning of all known living organisms.
The metric expansion of space. The inflationary epoch is the expansion of the metric tensor at left.
Hieronymus Bosch's Ascent of the Blessed depicts a tunnel of light and spiritual figures, often described in reports of near-death experiences.
Plato and Aristotle in The School of Athens fresco, by Raphael. Plato is pointing heavenwards to the sky, and Aristotle is gesturing to the world.
Immanuel Kant is regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of the late Enlightenment.
Jeremy Bentham
The End of the World, by John Martin.
Edvard Munch's The Scream, a representation of existential angst.
The "Happy Human" symbol representing secular humanism.
Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Christ the Redeemer statue on Corcovado mountain in Rio de Janeiro is symbolic of Christianity, illustrating the concept of seeking redemption through Jesus Christ.
The Ringstone symbol represents humanity's connection to God
A golden Aum written in Devanagari. The Aum is sacred in Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religions.
The eight-spoked Dharmachakra
The Khanda, an important symbol of Sikhism.
Taijitu symbolizes the unity of opposites between yin and yang.
Shinto torii, a traditional Japanese gate
Dante and Beatrice see God as a point of light surrounded by angels; from Gustave Doré's illustrations for the Divine Comedy
Charles Allan Gilbert's All is Vanity, an example of vanitas, depicts a young woman amidst her makeup and perfumes, preoccupied with her own beauty at the mirror of her vanity. But all is positioned in such a way as to make the image of a skull appear, expressing memento mori, that no matter how good she looks, it won't last, as death is inevitable.
Hamlet meditating upon Yorick's skull has become the most lasting embodiment of the imagery of vanitas, conveying the theme memento mori ('Remember you shall die'). Whatever the meaning of life, it (life) is fleeting.

The followers of Sikhism are ordained to follow the teachings of the ten Sikh Gurus, or enlightened leaders, as well as the holy scripture entitled the Gurū Granth Sāhib, which includes selected works of many philosophers from diverse socio-economic and religious backgrounds.

March 26

590 – Emperor Maurice proclaims his son Theodosius as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.

Battle between Khosrau II and Bahrām Chobin

1552 – Guru Amar Das becomes the Third Sikh guru.

October 6

105 BC – Cimbrian War: Defeat at the Battle of Arausio accelerates the Marian reforms of the Roman army of the mid-Republic.

Supposed migrations of the Cimbri and the Teutons. Roman victories  Victories of the Cimbri and Teutons

1661 – Guru Har Rai, Indian 7th Sikh guru (b. 1630)