Silesia in the early period of Poland's fragmentation, 1172–1177, Lower Silesia with Lubusz Land in orange, Upper Silesia in green and yellow
Battle of Legnica (1241) during the First Mongol invasion of Poland
Lands of the Bohemian Crown between 1635 and 1742, before most of Silesia was ceded to Prussia
Typical Silesian baroque architecture in Wrocław
First map of Silesia by Martin Helwig, 1561; north at the bottom
Bolesław Śmiały Coal Mine, Łaziska Górne
Polish names of Silesian cities, from a 1750 Prussian official document published in Berlin during the Silesian Wars
Confessions in the German Empire (Protestant/Catholic; c. 1890). Lower Silesia was mostly Protestant, while Glatz (Kłodzko) and Upper Silesia were mostly Catholic.
Coat of arms of the Prussian province of Upper Silesia (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Coat of arms of the Silesian Voivodeship
The coat of arms of the Opolskie Voivodeship
Henryk IV's Probus coat of arms
Coat of arms of Austrian Silesia (1742–1918)
Prussian province of Lower Silesia (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Coat of arms of the Lower Silesia Voivodeship
Coat of arms of Czech Silesia
Flag of Prussian Upper Silesia province (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Flag of Silesia Voivodeship
Flag of the Austrian Silesia (1742–1918), and Czech Silesia
Flag of Prussian Lower Silesia province (1919–1938 and 1941–1945)
Flag of Lower Silesia Voivodeship
Churches of Peace, Świdnica and Jawor
Centennial Hall, Wrocław
Historic Silver Mine, Tarnowskie Góry
Muskau Park, Łęknica and Bad Muskau<ref>Łęknica and Bad Muskau were considered part of Silesia in years 1815–1945.</ref>

Historical region of Central Europe that lies mostly within Poland, with small parts in Czechia and Germany.

- Silesia

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Geomorphological subprovince in Central Europe, shared by Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic.

Králický Sněžník
Hala Izerska (Polish Pole of Cold) in the Jizera Mountains
A view from Zygmuntówka refuge, Owl Mountain range (Góry Sowie)
Reconstruction of the Old Red Continent against which the terranes or "building blocks" of the Sudetes collided in Late Paleozoic times. The area of present-day Sudetes lies near the eastern end of Avalonia.
Ostrzyca, an eroded volcano in the northern Sudetes.
Escarpment at Szczeliniec Wielki, Table Mountains.
Tor landform made up of granite in the Sudetes.
Vang Stave Church
Project Riese, Owl Mountains
Winter in the Karkonosze. Polish refuge – Samotnia (1195 m a.s.l.)
Śnieżne Kotły
Śnieżne Kotły
Śnieżne Kotły
"Hell" on Szczeliniec Wielki, Table Mountains
Góry Sokole
Góry Sokole
Rudawy Janowickie
Starościńskie Skały in Rudawy Janowickie
Colourful lakelets
Table Mountains
Table Mountains
Table Mountains
Table Mountains
Table Mountains
Małe Organy Myśliborskie
Tripoint of Germany, Czech Republic, and Poland in the Eastern Upper Lusatia

The Sudetes' highest mountain is Mount Sněžka/Śnieżka 1603 m, which is also the highest mountain of the Czech Republic, Bohemia, Silesia, and Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in the Giant Mountains, lying on the border between the Czech Republic and Poland.

Duchy of Silesia

Silesia 1172–77: Fragmentation begins with Opole (green) and Racibórz (yellow) splitting off
Fragmentation of Poland in 1138:
Silesia 1172–77: Fragmentation begins with Opole (green) and Racibórz (yellow) splitting off
Full coat of arms of the duke 1290

The Duchy of Silesia (Księstwo śląskie, Herzogtum Schlesien, Slezské knížectví) with its capital at Wrocław was a medieval duchy located in the historic Silesian region of Poland.

Silesian Wars

The Central European borders of Brandenburg–Prussia (blue-green) and the Habsburg monarchy (red) in 1756, after Prussia's seizure of Silesia in the First Silesian War
Europe in the years after the Treaty of Vienna (1738) and before the First Silesian War, with Brandenburg–Prussia in violet and the Habsburg monarchy in gold
Maria Theresa of Austria c. 1744, by Martin van Meytens
The Lands of the Bohemian Crown under Habsburg rule until 1742, when most of Silesia was ceded to Brandenburg–Prussia
Prussian grenadiers overrunning Saxon forces during the Battle of Hohenfriedberg, as depicted by Carl Röchling
Frederick the Great of Prussia in 1745, by Antoine Pesne
Prussian Field Marshal Kurt von Schwerin dying of wounds at the Battle of Prague, as depicted by Johann Christoph Frisch
Austrian commander Ernst von Laudon surveying the 1759 Battle of Kunersdorf, where the Russian and Austrian forces combined to defeat the Prussians, as depicted by Siegmund L'Allemand
Europe in 1763 after the Third Silesian War, with Silesia under Prussian control

The Silesian Wars (Schlesische Kriege) were three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia (under King Frederick the Great) and Habsburg Austria (under Archduchess Maria Theresa) for control of the Central European region of Silesia (now in south-western Poland).


City located in southern Poland on the Oder River and the historical capital of Upper Silesia.

Contemporary model of the early medieval Polish stronghold in Opole
A fragment of medieval defensive walls that once surrounded Opole
The oldest known view of Opole seen from southeast, circa 1535
18th-century view of Opole
Stamps after the plebiscite in August 1921 featured the German name of Oppeln
The Piast Castle, prior to its demolition by the German authorities
Plaque at the main railway station commemorating deportations of Poles from Opole to concentration camps in 1939
Architecture of the Main Marketplace
Piast Bridge and Opole Cathedral in the background with its two iconic Gothic towers
City hall on the Main Market Square
Water canal along the Old Town
General view of Opole
Opole - a view of the city centre
The building of Collegium Maius of Opole University
Administrative subdivisions (districts) of Opole
Opole city budget income sources as of 2015.
Solaris Centre Mall
Jan Kasprowicz
Miroslav Klose
Remigiusz Mróz
Jesuit College, now a regional museum
Church of the Holy Trinity
Rynek (Market Square) filled with historic townhouses
Green Bridge
Młynówka Canal (Little Venice)
Ceres Fountain
Opole Główne railway station
John Paul II Library
Church of St. Adalbert, also known as the "Church on the Rock" and "Church on the Hill"
Signs showing direction of twin cities

At the end of the century Silesia became part of Poland and was ruled by the Piast dynasty; the land of the pagan Opolanie was conquered by Duke Mieszko I in 992.

Silesian language

On 6 September 2007, 23 politicians of the Polish parliament made a statement about a new law to give Silesian the official status of a regional language.

The first Sejm in Łęczyca. Recording of laws. A.D. 1180

region = Silesia

Austrian Silesia

Autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Habsburg monarchy .

Austrian Silesia (shown in red) within Austria-Hungary until 1918
Austrian Silesia (outlined in yellow), Richard Andree, 1880
Austrian Silesia (shown in red) within Austria-Hungary until 1918
Composition of Austrian Silesia
Coat of arms of the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia, as drawn by Hugo Gerard Ströhl (1851&ndash;1919)
Administrative divisions of Silesia as a crown land of Austria in 1900

It is largely coterminous with the present-day region of Czech Silesia and was, historically, part of the larger Silesia region.

Lower Silesia

Silesian coat of arms,
as drawn c. 1890 by Hugo Gerard Ströhl
Historic Silesia, superimposed on modern international borders:
cyan outline = medieval Bohemian crown land (after the loss of Krosno)
yellow outline = Prussian Silesia as of 1815 (with Upper Lusatian gains and Kłodzko, but without Austrian Silesia)
Kingdom of Poland with Lower Silesia under the first king Bolesław I the Brave
The oldest known Polish written sentence in the Book of Henryków
Renaissance facade of the Brzeg Castle, depicting members of the Piast dynasty, from the semi-legendary founder Piast the Wheelwright to Duke Frederick II of Legnica
Map of the Prussian Province of Silesia, with Lower Silesian administrative regions (Regencies) of Liegnitz and Breslau ("Middle Silesia")
Gross-Rosen concentration camp, now a museum
Wrocław Town Hall
Nysa, Poland
Baroque palace in Radomierzyce
Stadion Miejski (Wrocław)

Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; ; Niederschlesien; ; Dolna Šlazyńska; Silesia Inferior; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; ) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.


Capital city of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, and the central city of the Upper Silesian metropolitan area.

A fragment from the Bogucice Parish visitation report from 1598 that mentions the name Katowice for the first time
Baildon steelworks, 19th century
Katowice in the 1930s
Parachute Tower, one of the symbols of the Polish Defense of Katowice
3 Maja Street is one of the main promenades in the city
Katowice International Conference Centre, built in 2015
Cathedral of Christ the King, seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Katowice
The Great Synagogue in Katowice was destroyed by the German Nazis during the invasion of Poland on 4 September 1939
Plac Grunwaldzki in Koszutka under construction, 1950s
Modernist Osiedle Gwiazdy built in late 1970s and the light cubes of the New Silesian Museum
Scientific Information Center and Academic Library
KTW towers under construction, 2021
Nikiszowiec, a historic workers' housing estate
Spodek, a multipurpose arena from 1971
Galeria Katowicka shopping center
Silesia City Center – a large shopping mall in Katowice. Located over former coal mine "Gottwald"
High-rise buildings in Śródmieście, the most urbanized part of the city
A historical townhouse on the corner of Stawowa and Mickiewicz Streets
Las Murckowski
Silesian Library in Katowice
University of Silesia in Katowice – Faculty of Theology
Pesa Twist tram in Katowice
City by bike bicycles in Józefowiec district
Katowice Central Station
Spanish fans at the EuroBasket 2009 in Katowice
2012 FIVB Volleyball World League match in Katowice
Maria Goeppert Mayer
Wojciech Kilar
Kazimierz Kutz

In 1742, along with most of Silesia, it was seized by Prussia following the First Silesian War.

Duchies of Silesia

Duchies of Silesia within the Bohemian Crown and the Holy Roman Empire (1618)
Brzeg Castle, place of death of the last duke of the Piast dynasty in 1675
Duchies of Silesia within the Bohemian Crown and the Holy Roman Empire (1618)
1172/3-1177{{legend|orange|Bolesław I}}{{legend|green|Jarosław}}{{legend|yellow|Mieszko I}}
1177-1185{{legend|orange|Bolesław I}}{{legend|green|Jarosław}}{{legend|yellow|Mieszko I}}{{legend|darkblue|Konrad}}
1185-1201{{legend|orange|Bolesław I}}{{legend|green|Jarosław}}{{legend|yellow|Mieszko I}}
1201-1202{{legend|orange|Henry I}}{{legend|yellow|Mieszko I}}
1206-1217{{legend|orange|Henry I}}{{legend|lightgreen|Władysław Odonic}}{{legend|violet|Lubusz Land}}{{legend|yellow|Mieszko I, {{spaces|7}}1211: Casimir I}}
1217-1230{{legend|orange|Henry I}}{{legend|yellow|Casimir I}}
1241-1243{{legend|orange|Bolesław II}}{{legend|lightblue|Mieszko Lubuski}}{{legend|lightgreen|Władysław Opolski}}{{legend|yellow|Mieszko II}}
1243-1248{{legend|orange|Bolesław II}}{{legend|lightgreen|Władysław Opolski}}{{legend|yellow|Mieszko II, {{spaces|7}}1246: Władysław {{spaces|7}}Opolski}}{{legend|darkgreen|Santok}}{{legend|pink|Kalisz}}{{legend|violet|Kępno}}{{legend|lightblue|Lelów}}

The Duchies of Silesia were the more than twenty divisions of the region of Silesia formed between the 12th and 14th centuries by the breakup of the Duchy of Silesia, then part of the Kingdom of Poland.

Upper Silesia

Moravian-Silesian Beskids
Silesian flag used by Silesians
Coat of arms of Upper Silesia as drawn by Hugo Gerard Ströhl (1851–1919)
1746 map of Upper Silesia, Homann heirs, Nuremberg
Silesian Parliament in Katowice
Silesian dumplings
Silesian gorals

Upper Silesia (Górny Śląsk; ; Horní Slezsko; Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Oberschläsing; Silesia Superior) is the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located today mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic.